OH.2. Acquisition of Vocabulary: Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
2.1. Grade Level Indicator: Contextual Understanding: Determine the meaning of unknown words by using a variety of context clues, including word, sentence and paragraph clues.
2.2. Grade Level Indicator: Contextual Understanding: Use context clues to determine the meaning of synonyms, antonyms, homophones, homonyms and homographs.
2.7. Grade Level Indicator: Structural Understanding: Identify the meanings of prefixes, suffixes and roots and their various forms to determine the meanings of words.
2.A. Use context clues and text structures to determine the meaning of new vocabulary.
2.E. Use knowledge of roots and affixes to determine the meanings of complex words.
OH.4. Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text: Students gain information from reading for purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
4.1. Grade Level Indicator: Make inferences about informational text from the title page, table of contents and chapter headings.
4.5. Grade Level Indicator: Draw conclusions from information in maps, charts, graphs and diagrams.
4.A. Use text features and graphics to organize, analyze and draw inferences from content and to gain additional information.
OH.8. Writing Conventions: Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
8.4. Grade Level Indicator: Spelling: Spell roots, suffixes and prefixes correctly.