IN.1. Reading: Word Recognition, Fluency, and Vocabulary Development: Students understand the basic features of words. They see letter patterns and know how to translate them into spoken language by using phonics (an understanding of the different letters that make different sounds), syllables, word parts (un-, re-, -est, -ful), and context (the meaning of the text around a word).
4.1.2. Vocabulary and Concept Development: Apply knowledge of synonyms (words with the same meaning), antonyms (words with opposite meanings), homographs (words that are spelled the same but have different meanings), and idioms (expressions that cannot be understood just by knowing the meanings of the words in the expression, such as couch potato) to determine the meaning of words and phrases.
4.1.7. Vocabulary and Concept Development: Use context to determine the meaning of unknown words.
IN.6. Writing: English Language Conventions: Students write using Standard English conventions appropriate to this grade level.
4.6.4. Grammar: Identify and use in writing regular (live/lived, shout/shouted) and irregular verbs (swim/swam, ride/rode, hit/hit), adverbs (constantly, quickly), and prepositions (through, beyond, between).
4.6.8. Spelling: Spell correctly roots (bases of words, such as unnecessary, cowardly), inflections (words like care/careful/caring), words with more than one acceptable spelling (like advisor/adviser), suffixes and prefixes (-ly, -ness, mis-, un-), and syllables (word parts each containing a vowel sound, such as sur-prise or e-col-o-gy).