Ohio Standards 8th Grade ELA Activities
Printable Eighth Grade English Language Arts Worksheets and Study Guides.
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OH.10. Communications: Oral and Visual: Students learn to communicate effectively through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. By speaking, listening and providing and interpreting visual images, they learn to apply their communication skills in increasingly sophisticated ways. Students learn to deliver presentations that effectively convey information and persuade or entertain audiences. Proficient speakers control language and deliberately choose vocabulary to clarify points and adjust presentations according to audience and purpose.
10.10. Grade Level Indicator: Speaking Applications: Deliver persuasive presentations that: establish and develop a logical and controlled argument; include relevant evidence, differentiating between evidence and opinion to support a position and to address counter-arguments or listener bias; and consistently use common organizational structures as appropriate (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution).
10.3. Grade Level Indicator: Listening and Viewing: Determine the credibility of the speaker (e.g., hidden agendas, slanted or biased material) and recognize fallacies of reasoning used in presentations and media messages.
10.4. Grade Level Indicator: Listening and Viewing: Identify the speaker's choice of language and delivery styles (e.g., repetition, appeal to emotion, eye contact) and how they contribute to meaning.
10.6. Grade Level Indicator: Speaking Skills and Strategies: Adjust volume, phrasing, enunciation, voice modulation and inflection to stress important ideas and impact audience response.
10.7. Grade Level Indicator: Speaking Skills and Strategies: Vary language choices as appropriate to the context of the speech.
10.8. Grade Level Indicator: Speaking Applications: Deliver informational presentations (e.g., expository, research) that: demonstrate an understanding of the topic and present events or ideas in a logical sequence; support the controlling idea or thesis with well-chosen and relevant facts, details, examples, quotations, statistics, stories and anecdotes; include an effective introduction and conclusion and use a consistent organizational structure (e.g., cause-effect, compare-contrast, problem-solution); use appropriate visual materials (e.g., diagrams, charts, illustrations) and available technology; and draw from multiple sources, including both primary and secondary sources, and identify sources used.
10.9. Grade Level Indicator: Speaking Applications: Deliver formal and informal descriptive presentations that convey relevant information and descriptive details.
10.B. Analyze the techniques used by speakers and media to influence an audience, and evaluate the effect this has on the credibility of a speaker or media message.
10.D. Demonstrate an understanding of effective speaking strategies by selecting appropriate language and adjusting presentation techniques.
10.E. Give informational presentations that present ideas in a logical sequence, include relevant facts and details from multiple sources and use a consistent organizational structure.
10.F. Provide persuasive presentations that use varied speaking techniques and strategies and include a clear controlling idea or thesis.
10.G. Give presentations using a variety of delivery methods, visual displays and technology.
OH.2. Acquisition of Vocabulary: Students acquire vocabulary through exposure to language-rich situations, such as reading books and other texts and conversing with adults and peers. They use context clues, as well as direct explanations provided by others, to gain new words. They learn to apply word analysis skills to build and extend their own vocabulary. As students progress through the grades, they become more proficient in applying their knowledge of words (origins, parts, relationships, meanings) to acquire specialized vocabulary that aids comprehension.
2.1. Grade Level Indicator: Contextual Understanding: Define unknown words through context clues and the author's use of comparison, contrast and cause and effect.
2.2. Grade Level Indicator: Conceptual Understanding: Apply knowledge of connotation and denotation to determine the meaning of words.
2.3. Grade Level Indicator: Conceptual Understanding: Identify the relationships of pairs of words in analogical statements (e.g., synonyms and antonyms) and infer word meanings from these relationships.
2.4. Grade Level Indicator: Conceptual Understanding: Infer the literal and figurative meaning of words and phrases and discuss the function of figurative language, including metaphors, similes and idioms.
2.5. Grade Level Indicator: Conceptual Understanding: Examine and discuss the ways that different events (e.g., cultural, political, social, technological, and scientific events) impact and change the English language.
2.6. Grade Level Indicator: Structural Understanding: Use knowledge of Greek, Latin and Anglo-Saxon roots, prefixes and suffixes to understand complex words and new subject-area vocabulary (e.g., unknown words in science, mathematics and social studies).
2.7. Grade Level Indicator: Tools and Resources: Determine the meanings and pronunciations of unknown words by using dictionaries, thesauruses, glossaries, technology and textual features, such as definitional footnotes or sidebars.
2.A. Use context clues and text structures to determine the meaning of new vocabulary.
2.B. Examine the relationships of analogical statements to infer word meanings.
2.C. Recognize the importance and function of figurative language.
2.D. Explain how different events have influenced and changed the English language.
2.E. Apply knowledge of roots and affixes to determine the meanings of complex words and subject area vocabulary.
2.F. Use multiple resources to enhance comprehension of vocabulary.
OH.3. Concepts of Print, Comprehension Strategies and Self-Monitoring Strategies: Students develop and learn to apply strategies that help them to comprehend and interpret informational and literary texts. Reading and learning to read are problem solving processes that require strategies for the reader to make sense of written language and remain engaged with texts. Beginners develop basic concepts about print (e.g., that print holds meaning) and how books work (e.g., text organization). As strategic readers, students learn to analyze and evaluate texts to demonstrate their understanding of text. Additionally, students learn to self-monitor their own comprehension by asking and answering questions about the text, self-correcting errors and assessing their own understanding. They apply these strategies effectively to assigned and self-selected texts read in and out of the classroom.
3.1. Grade Level Indicator: Comprehension Strategies: Apply reading comprehension strategies, including making predictions, comparing and contrasting, recalling and summarizing and making inferences and drawing conclusions.
3.2. Grade Level Indicator: Comprehension Strategies: Answer literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing questions to demonstrate comprehension of grade-appropriate print texts and electronic and visual media.
3.3. Grade Level Indicator: Self-Monitoring Strategies: Monitor own comprehension by adjusting speed to fit the purpose, or by skimming, scanning, reading on, looking back, note taking or summarizing what has been read so far in text.
3.5. Grade Level Indicator: Independent Reading: Independently read books for various purposes (e.g., for enjoyment, for literary experience, to gain information or to perform a task).
3.A. Apply reading comprehension strategies to understand grade-appropriate text.
3.B. Demonstrate comprehension of print and electronic text by responding to questions (e.g., literal, inferential, evaluative and synthesizing).
OH.4. Informational, Technical and Persuasive Text: Students gain information from reading for purposes of learning about a subject, doing a job, making decisions and accomplishing a task. Students need to apply the reading process to various types of informational texts, including essays, magazines, newspapers, textbooks, instruction manuals, consumer and workplace documents, reference materials, multimedia and electronic resources. They learn to attend to text features, such as titles, subtitles and visual aids, to make predictions and build text knowledge. They learn to read diagrams, charts, graphs, maps and displays in text as sources of additional information. Students use their knowledge of text structure to organize content information, analyze it and draw inferences from it. Strategic readers learn to recognize arguments, bias, stereotyping and propaganda in informational text sources.
4.1. Grade Level Indicator: Compare and contrast text features, including format and headers of various informational texts in terms of their structure and purpose.
4.4. Grade Level Indicator: Analyze information found in maps, charts, tables, graphs, diagrams, cutaways and overlays.
4.5. Grade Level Indicator: Assess the adequacy, accuracy and appropriateness of an author's details, identifying persuasive techniques (e.g., bandwagon, testimonial and emotional word repetition) and examples of bias and stereotyping.
4.6. Grade Level Indicator: Identify the author's purpose and intended audience for the text.
4.7. Grade Level Indicator: Analyze an author's argument, perspective or viewpoint and explain the development of key points.
4.A. Evaluate how features and characteristics make information accessible and usable and how structures help authors achieve their purposes.
4.B. Identify examples of rhetorical devices and valid and invalid inferences, and explain how authors use these devices to achieve their purposes and reach their intended audiences.
4.C. Analyze whether graphics supplement textual information and promote the author's purpose.
4.D. Explain and analyze how an author appeals to an audience and develops an argument or viewpoint in text.
OH.5. Literary Text: Students enhance their understanding of the human story by reading literary texts that represent a variety of authors, cultures and eras. They learn to apply the reading process to the various genres of literature, including fables, folk tales, short stories, novels, poetry and drama. They demonstrate their comprehension by describing and discussing the elements of literature (e.g., setting, character and plot), analyzing the author's use of language (e.g., word choice and figurative language), comparing and contrasting texts, inferring theme and meaning and responding to text in critical and creative ways. Strategic readers learn to explain, analyze and critique literary text to achieve deep understanding.
5.1. Grade Level Indicator: Identify and explain various types of characters (e.g., flat, round, dynamic, static) and how their interactions and conflicts affect the plot.
5.2. Grade Level Indicator: Analyze the influence of setting in relation to other literary elements.
5.3. Grade Level Indicator: Explain how authors pace action and use subplots, parallel episodes and climax.
5.6. Grade Level Indicator: Explain how an author's choice of genre affects the expression of a theme or topic.
5.8. Grade Level Indicator: Explain ways in which the author conveys mood and tone through word choice, figurative language, and syntax.
5.A. Analyze interactions between characters in literary text and how the interactions affect the plot.
5.B. Explain and analyze how the context of setting and the author's choice of point of view impact a literary text.
5.C. Identify the structural elements of the plot and explain how an author develops conflicts and plot to pace the events in literary text.
5.E. Analyze the use of a genre to express a theme or topic.
5.F. Identify and analyze how an author uses figurative language, sound devices and literary techniques to shape plot, set meaning and develop tone.
OH.6. Writing Process: Students' writing develops when they regularly engage in the major phases of the writing process. The writing process includes the phases of prewriting, drafting, revising and editing and publishing. They learn to plan their writing for different purposes and audiences. They learn to apply their writing skills in increasingly sophisticated ways to create and produce compositions that reflect effective word and grammatical choices. Students develop revision strategies to improve the content, organization and language of their writing. Students also develop editing skills to improve writing conventions.
6.14. Grade Level Indicator: Drafting, Revising and Editing: Use resources and reference materials (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to select more effective vocabulary.
6.15. Grade Level Indicator: Drafting, Revising and Editing: Proofread writing, edit to improve conventions (e.g., grammar, spelling, punctuation and capitalization) and identify and correct fragments and run-ons.
6.2. Grade Level Indicator: Prewriting: Conduct background reading, interviews or surveys when appropriate.
6.4. Grade Level Indicator: Prewriting: Determine a purpose and audience and plan strategies (e.g., adapting focus, content structure and point of view) to address purpose and audience.
6.7. Grade Level Indicator: Drafting, Revising and Editing: Vary simple, compound and complex sentence structures.
6.9. Grade Level Indicator: Drafting, Revising and Editing: Use precise language, action verbs, sensory details, colorful modifiers and style as appropriate to audience and purpose.
6.D. Edit to improve sentence fluency, grammar and usage.
OH.7. Writing Applications: Students need to understand that various types of writing require different language, formatting and special vocabulary. Writing serves many purposes across the curriculum and takes various forms. Beginning writers learn about the various purposes of writing; they attempt and use a small range of familiar forms (e.g., letters). Developing writers are able to select text forms to suit purpose and audience. They can explain why some text forms are more suited to a purpose than others and begin to use content-specific vocabulary to achieve their communication goals. Proficient writers control effectively the language and structural features of a large repertoire of text forms. They deliberately choose vocabulary to enhance text and structure their writing according to audience and purpose.
7.3. Grade Level Indicator: Write business letters, letters to the editor and job applications that: address audience needs, stated purpose and context in a clear and efficient manner; follow the conventional style appropriate to the text using proper technical terms; include appropriate facts and details; exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies; and provide a sense of closure to the writing.
7.C. Produce letters (e.g., business, letters to the editor, job applications) that follow the conventional style appropriate to the text, include appropriate details and exclude extraneous details and inconsistencies.
7.D. Use documented textual evidence to justify interpretations of literature or to support a research topic.
OH.8. Writing Conventions: Students learn to master writing conventions through exposure to good models and opportunities for practice. Writing conventions include spelling, punctuation, grammar and other conventions associated with forms of written text. They learn the purpose of punctuation: to clarify sentence meaning and help readers know how writing might sound aloud. They develop and extend their understanding of the spelling system, using a range of strategies for spelling words correctly and using newly learned vocabulary in their writing. They grow more skillful at using the grammatical structures of English to effectively communicate ideas in writing and to express themselves.
8.1. Grade Level Indicator: Spelling: Use correct spelling conventions.
8.2. Grade Level Indicator: Punctuation and Capitalization: Use correct punctuation and capitalization.
8.3. Grade Level Indicator: Grammar and Usage: Use all eight parts of speech (e.g., noun, pronoun, verb, adverb, adjective, conjunction, preposition, interjection).
8.4. Grade Level Indicator: Grammar and Usage: Use clauses (e.g., main, subordinate) and phrases (e.g., gerund, infinitive, participial).
8.5. Grade Level Indicator: Grammar and Usage: Use parallel structure to present items in a series and items juxtaposed for emphasis.
8.6. Grade Level Indicator: Grammar and Usage: Use proper placement of modifiers.
8.A. Use correct spelling conventions.
8.B. Use correct punctuation and capitalization.
8.C. Demonstrate understanding of the grammatical conventions of the English language.
OH.9. Research: Students define and investigate self-selected or assigned issues, topics and problems. They locate, select and make use of relevant information from a variety of media, reference and technological sources. Students use an appropriate form to communicate their findings.
9.2. Grade Level Indicator: Identify appropriate sources and gather relevant information from multiple sources (e.g., school library catalogs, online databases, electronic resources and Internet-based resources).
9.6. Grade Level Indicator: Integrate quotations and citations into written text to maintain a flow of ideas.
9.8. Grade Level Indicator: Use a variety of communication techniques, including oral, visual, written or multimedia reports, to present information that supports a clear position about the topic or research question and to maintain an appropriate balance between researched information and original ideas.
9.E. Communicate findings, reporting on the substance and processes orally, visually and in writing or through multimedia.
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