Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks
MA.1.OA. Operations and Algebraic Thinking
1.OA.B. Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
1.OA.B.3. Apply properties of operations to add. For example, when adding numbers order does not matter. If 8 + 3 = 11 is known, then 3 + 8 = 11 is also known (Commutative property of addition). To add 2 + 6 + 4, the second two numbers can be added to make a ten, so 2 + 6 + 4 = 2 + 10 = 12 (Associative property of addition). When adding zero to a number, the result is the same number (Identity property of zero for addition).
1.OA.B.4. Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
1.OA.C. Add and subtract within 20.
1.OA.C.5. Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).
1.OA.C.6. Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use mental strategies such as counting on; making 10 (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a 10 (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
MA.1.NBT. Number and Operations in Base Ten
1.NBT.C. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.
1.NBT.C.4. Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings, and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.