Massachusetts Curriculum Frameworks
MA.1.OA. Operations and Algebraic Thinking
1.OA.A. Represent and solve problems involving addition and subtraction.
1.OA.A.1. Use addition and subtraction within 20 to solve word problems involving situations of adding to, taking from, putting together, taking apart, and comparing, with unknowns in all positions, e.g., by using objects, drawings, and equations (number sentences) with a symbol for the unknown number to represent the problem.
1.OA.B. Understand and apply properties of operations and the relationship between addition and subtraction.
1.OA.B.4. Understand subtraction as an unknown-addend problem. For example, subtract 10 – 8 by finding the number that makes 10 when added to 8.
1.OA.C. Add and subtract within 20.
1.OA.C.5. Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).
1.OA.C.6. Add and subtract within 20, demonstrating fluency for addition and subtraction within 10. Use mental strategies such as counting on; making 10 (e.g., 8 + 6 = 8 + 2 + 4 = 10 + 4 = 14); decomposing a number leading to a 10 (e.g., 13 – 4 = 13 – 3 – 1 = 10 – 1 = 9); using the relationship between addition and subtraction (e.g., knowing that 8 + 4 = 12, one knows 12 – 8 = 4); and creating equivalent but easier or known sums (e.g., adding 6 + 7 by creating the known equivalent 6 + 6 + 1 = 12 + 1 = 13).
MA.1.NBT. Number and Operations in Base Ten
1.NBT.C. Use place value understanding and properties of operations to add and subtract.
1.NBT.C.4. Add within 100, including adding a two-digit number and a one-digit number, and adding a two-digit number and a multiple of 10, using concrete models or drawings, and strategies based on place value, properties of operations, and/or the relationship between addition and subtraction; relate the strategy to a written method and explain the reasoning used. Understand that in adding two-digit numbers, one adds tens and tens, ones and ones; and sometimes it is necessary to compose a ten.