U.S. National Standards
N.1. Number and Operations
1.2. Understand meanings of operations and how they relate to one another.
1.2.4. Understand and use properties of operations, such as the distributivity of multiplication over addition.
1.3. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
1.3.2. Develop fluency in adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers.
1.3.6. Select appropriate methods and tools for computing with whole numbers from among mental computation, estimation, calculators, and paper and pencil according to the context and nature of the computation and use the selected method or tools.
N.11. Grade 4 Curriculum Focal Points
11.1. Number and Operations and Algebra: Developing quick recall of multiplication facts and related division facts and fluency with whole number multiplication
11.1.1. Students use understandings of multiplication to develop quick recall of the basic multiplication facts and related division facts. They apply their understanding of models for multiplication (i.e., equal-sized groups, arrays, area models, equal intervals on the number line), place value, and properties of operations (in particular, the distributive property) as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable methods to multiply multi-digit whole numbers. They select appropriate methods and apply them accurately to estimate products or calculate them mentally, depending on the context and numbers involved. They develop fluency with efficient procedures, including the standard algorithm, for multiplying whole numbers, understand why the procedures work (on the basis of place value and properties of operations), and use them to solve problems.
2.2. Represent and analyze mathematical situations and structures using algebraic symbols.
2.2.1. Identify such properties as commutativity, associativity, and distributivity and use them to compute with whole numbers.
2.3. Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
2.3.1. Model problem situations with objects and use representations such as graphs, tables, and equations to draw conclusions.