**Maryland College and Career-Ready Education Standards**. The top number of a fraction is called the numerator. It shows how many pieces of a whole we are talking about. The bottom number is called the denominator. It shows how many pieces an object was divided into, or how many total pieces we have. Read More...

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MD.MA.4.NF. Number and Operations – Fractions (NF) (limited to fractions with denominators 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 100)

4.NF.A. Extend understanding of fraction equivalence and ordering.

4.NF.A.1. Major Standard: Explain why a fraction a/b is equivalent to a fraction (n x a)/(n x b) by using visual fraction models, with attention to how the number and size of the parts differ even though the two fractions themselves are the same size. Use this principle to recognize and generate equivalent fractions.

4.NF.A.1.1. Ability to use concrete materials to model fraction number concepts and values.

4.NF.A.1.2. Knowledge of and ability to generate simple equivalent fractions (3.NF.A.3b).

4.NF.A.1.3. Extend work from third grade by using additional denominators 5, 10, 12, and 100.

4.NF.A.1.4. Generate a rule for finding equivalent fractions based on conceptual understanding of using models to show equivalent fractions.

4.NF.A.2. Major Standard: Compare two fractions with different numerators and different denominators, e.g., by creating common denominators or numerators, or by comparing to a benchmark fraction such as 1/2. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with symbols >, =, <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

4.NF.A.2.1. Ability to apply knowledge factors (4.OA.B.4) to the strategies used to determine equivalent fractions as well as ordering fractions.

4.NF.A.2.2. Ability to apply reasoning such as 5/12 < 1/2 because 6/12 is equivalent to one half so five twelfths is less than one half.

4.NF.A.2.3. Ability to identify the ‘whole’ for the fractions being compared.

4.NF.A.2.4. Ability to compare unlike fractions as stated in this Standard lays the foundation for knowledge of strategies such as finding the Least Common Multiple or the Greatest Common Factor.

4.NF.B. Build fractions from unit fractions by applying and extending previous understandings of operations on whole numbers.

4.NF.B.3a. Major Standard: Understand a fraction a/b with a>1 as a sum of fractions 1/b – Understand addition and subtraction of fractions as joining and separating parts referring to the same whole.

4.NF.B.3a.2. Knowledge that the numerator tells how many parts of the whole we are counting and the denominator tells how many total parts there are in all.

4.NF.B.3a.3. Knowledge that when counting parts of a whole, the numerator consecutively changes, the denominator stays the same.

4.NF.B.3d. Major Standard: Understand a fraction a/b with a>1 as a sum of fractions 1/b – Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions referring to the same whole and having like denominators, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the problem.

4.NF.B.3d.1. Ability to apply the understanding that the numerator tells us how many parts of the whole we are counting and the denominator tells us how many total parts there are in the whole.

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