U.S. National Standards
N.1. Number and Operations (NCTM)
1.1. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
1.1.3. Develop understanding of fractions as parts of unit wholes, as parts of a collection, as locations on number lines, and as divisions of whole numbers.
N.2. Algebra (NCTM)
2.3. Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
2.3.1. Model problem situations with objects and use representations such as graphs, tables, and equations to draw conclusions.
N.5. Data Analysis and Probability (NCTM)
5.4. Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.
5.4.1. Describe events as likely or unlikely and discuss the degree of likelihood using such words as certain, equally likely, and impossible.
5.4.3. Understand that the measure of the likelihood of an event can be represented by a number from 0 to 1.
N.12. Connections to the Grade 4 Focal Points (NCTM)
12.5. Number and Operations: Building on their work in grade 3, students extend their understanding of place value and ways of representing numbers to 100,000 in various contexts. They use estimation in determining the relative sizes of amounts or distances. Students develop understandings of strategies for multi-digit division by using models that represent division as the inverse of multiplication, as partitioning, or as successive subtraction. By working with decimals, students extend their ability to recognize equivalent fractions. Students' earlier work in grade 3 with models of fractions and multiplication and division facts supports their understanding of techniques for generating equivalent fractions and simplifying fractions.