National STEM Standards
STEM.M. MATHEMATICS: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM)
NCTM.5. Data Analysis and Probability
5.1. Formulate questions that can be addressed with data and collect, organize, and display relevant data to answer them.
5.1.2. Select, create, and use appropriate graphical representations of data, including histograms, box plots, and scatterplots.
5.2. Select and use appropriate statistical methods to analyze data.
5.2.1. Find, use, and interpret measures of center and spread, including mean and interquartile range.
5.2.2. Discuss and understand the correspondence between data sets and their graphical representations, especially histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, box plots, and scatterplots.
5.3. Develop and evaluate inferences and predictions that are based on data.
5.3.2. Make conjectures about possible relationships between two characteristics of a sample on the basis of scatterplots of the data and approximate lines of fit.
NCTM.11. Grade 8 Curriculum Focal Points
11.3. Data Analysis and Number and Operations and Algebra: Analyzing and summarizing data sets
11.3.1. Students use descriptive statistics, including mean, median, and range, to summarize and compare data sets, and they organize and display data to pose and answer questions. They compare the information provided by the mean and the median and investigate the different effects that changes in data values have on these measures of center. They understand that a measure of center alone does not thoroughly describe a data set because very different data sets can share the same measure of center. Students select the mean or the median as the appropriate measure of center for a given purpose.
NCTM.12. Connections to the Grade 8 Focal Points
12.3. Data Analysis: Building on their work in previous grades to organize and display data to pose and answer questions, students now see numerical data as an aggregate, which they can often summarize with one or several numbers. In addition to the median, students determine the 25th and 75th percentiles (1st and 3rd quartiles) to obtain information about the spread of data. They may use box-and-whisker plots to convey this information. Students make scatterplots to display bivariate data, and they informally estimate lines of best fit to make and test conjectures.