National STEM Standards
STEM.M. MATHEMATICS: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
NCTM.1. Number and Operations
1.1. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers, and number systems.
1.1.4. Develop a sense of whole numbers and represent and use them in flexible ways, including relating, composing, and decomposing numbers.
1.1.5. Connect number words and numerals to the quantities they represent, using various physical models and representations.
1.3. Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
1.3.1. Develop and use strategies for whole-number computations, with a focus on addition and subtraction.
1.3.2. Develop fluency with basic number combinations for addition and subtraction.
NCTM.11. Kindergarten Curriculum Focal Points
11.1. Number and Operation: Representing, comparing, and ordering whole numbers and joining and separating sets
11.1.1. Children use numbers, including written numerals, to represent quantities and to solve quantitative problems, such as counting objects in a set, creating a set with a given number of objects, comparing and ordering sets or numerals by using both cardinal and ordinal meanings, and modeling simple joining and separating situations with objects. They choose, combine, and apply effective strategies for answering quantitative questions, including quickly recognizing the number in a small set, counting and producing sets of given sizes, counting the number in combined sets, and counting backward.
2.3. Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
2.3.1. Model situations that involve the addition and subtraction of whole numbers, using objects, pictures, and symbols.