UT.III. Students will understand the relationship between the force applied to an object and resulting motion of the object.
III.1. Demonstrate how forces cause changes in speed or direction of objects.
III.1.a. Show that objects at rest will not move unless a force is applied to them.
III.1.b. Compare the forces of pushing and pulling.
III.1.c. Investigate how forces applied through simple machines affect the direction and/or amount of resulting force.
III.2. Demonstrate that the greater the force applied to an object, the greater the change in speed or direction of the object.
III.2.a. Predict and observe what happens when a force is applied to an object (e.g., wind, flowing water).
III.2.e. Show how these concepts apply to various activities (e.g., batting a ball, kicking a ball, hitting a golf ball with a golf club) in terms of force, motion, speed, direction, and distance (e.g. slow, fast, hit hard, hit soft).
UT.IV. Students will understand that objects near Earth are pulled toward Earth by gravity.
IV.2. Describe the effects of gravity on the motion of an object.
IV.2.a. Compare how the motion of an object rolling up or down a hill changes with the incline of the hill.
IV.2.b. Observe, record, and compare the effect of gravity on several objects in motion (e.g., a thrown ball and a dropped ball falling to Earth).
IV.2.c. Pose questions about gravity and forces.
UT.V. Students will understand that the sun is the main source of heat and light for things living on Earth. They will also understand that the motion of rubbing objects together may produce heat.
V.3. Demonstrate that heat may be produced when objects are rubbed against one another.
V.3.b. Compare relative differences in the amount of heat given off or force required to move an object over lubricated/non-lubricated surfaces and smooth/rough surfaces (e.g., waterslide with and without water, hands rubbing together with and without lotion).