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Pennsylvania Standards for Fourth Grade Science

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PA.3. Science and Technology and Engineering Education

3.1. Biological Sciences

3.1.A. Organisms and Cells
3.1.4.A1. Classify plants and animals according to the physical characteristics that they share.
3.1.4.A2. Describe the different resources that plants and animals need to live.
3.1.4.A3. Identify differences in the life cycles of plants and animals.
3.1.4.A8. (MODELS) Construct and interpret models and diagrams of various animal and plant life cycles.
3.1.B. Genetics
3.1.4 B5. (PATTERNS) Identify observable patterns in the physical characteristics of plants or groups of animals.
3.1.C. Evolution
3.1.4.C1a. Identify different characteristics of plants and animals that help some populations survive and reproduce in greater numbers.
3.1.4.C2. Describe plant and animal adaptations that are important to survival.

3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics

3.2.A. Chemistry
3.2.4.A1a. Identify and classify objects based on their observable and measurable physical properties.
3.2.4.A1b. Compare and contrast solids, liquids, and gases based on their properties.
3.2.4.A4. Recognize that combining two or more substances may make new materials with different properties.
3.2.4.A5. (MODELS) Use models to demonstrate the physical change as water goes from liquid to ice and from liquid to vapor.
3.2.B. Physics
3.2.4.B1. Explain how an object's change in motion can be observed and measured.
3.2.4.B2. Identify types of energy and their ability to be stored and changed from one form to another.
3.2.4.B3. Understand that objects that emit light often emit heat.
3.2.4.B4a. Apply knowledge of basic electrical circuits to the design and construction of simple direct current circuits.
3.2.4.B4b. Compare and contrast series and parallel circuits.
3.2.4.B5a. Demonstrate how vibrating objects make sound and sound can make things vibrate.
3.2.4.B5b. Demonstrate how light can be reflected, refracted, or absorbed by an object.
3.2.4.B6. (ENERGY) Give examples of how energy can be transformed from one form to another.

3.3. Earth and Space Sciences

3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles
3.3.4.A1a. Describe basic landforms.
3.3.4.A1b. Identify the layers of the earth.
3.3.4.A1c. Recognize that the surface of the earth changes due to slow processes and rapid processes.
3.3.4.A2. Identify basic properties and uses of Earth's materials including rocks, soils, water, and gases of the atmosphere.
3.3.4.A3. Recognize that fossils provide evidence about the plants and animals that lived long ago and the nature of the environment at that time.
3.3.4.A4a. Recognize Earth's different water resources, including both fresh and saltwater.
3.3.4.A4b. Describe phase changes in the forms of water on Earth.
3.3.4.A5a. Describe basic weather elements.
3.3.4.A5b. Identify weather patterns over time.
3.3.4.A6a. (MODELS/SCALE) Identify basic landforms using models and simple maps.
3.3.4.A6b. (CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Identify simple changes in the earth system as air, water, soil and rock interact.
3.3.4.A6c. (SCALE) Explain how basic weather elements are measured.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe
3.3.4.B1a. Identify planets in our solar system and their basic characteristics.
3.3.4.B1b. Describe the earth's place in the solar system that includes the sun (a star), planets, and many moons.
3.3.4.B1c. Recognize that the universe contains many billions of galaxies and that each galaxy contains many billions of stars.
3.3.4.B2b. (PATTERNS/PHASES) Identify major lunar phases.
3.3.4.B2c. (PATTERNS) Explain time (days, seasons) using solar system motions.

3.4. Technology and Engineering Education

3.4.E. The Designed World
3.4.4.E3. Identify types of energy and the importance of energy conservation.

PA.4. Environment and Ecology

4.1. Ecology

4.1.4.A. Explain how living things are dependent upon other living and nonliving things for survival.
4.1.4.A.1. Explain what happens to an organism when its food supply, access to water, shelter or space (niche /habitat) is changed.
4.1.4.A.2. Identify similarities and differences between living organisms, ranging from single-celled to multicellular organisms through the use of microscopes, video, and other media.
4.1.4.B. Identify how matter cycles through an ecosystem.
4.1.4.B.1. Trace how death, growth, and decay cycle matter through an ecosystem.
4.1.4.C. Explain how most life on earth gets its energy from the sun.
4.1.4.D. Explain how specific adaptations can help organisms survive in their environment.
4.1.4.E. Explain that ecosystems change over time due to natural and/or human influences.

4.2. Watersheds and Wetlands

4.2.4.A. Describe the physical characteristics of a watershed.
4.2.4.A.2. Identify water systems and their components as either lotic or lentic.
4.2.4.B. Describe the characteristics of different types of wetlands.

4.3. Natural Resources

4.3.4.A. Identify ways humans depend on natural resources for survival.
4.3.4.A.1. Identify resources used to provide humans with energy, food, employment, housing and water.
4.3.4.B. Identify the geographic origins of various natural resources.

4.5. Humans and the Environment

4.5.4.A. Identify how people use natural resources in sustainable and non-sustainable ways.
4.5.4.C. Describe how human activities affect the environment.
4.5.4.D. Describe a waste stream.
4.5.4.D.1. Identify sources of waste derived from the use of natural resources.
4.5.4.D.2. Identify those items that can be recycled and those that can not.

PA.SI. Science as Inquiry

SI.3. Understand that all scientific investigations involve asking and answering questions and comparing the answer with what is already known.

SI.5. Use simple equipment (tools and other technologies) to gather data and understand that this allows scientists to collect more information than relying only on their senses to gather information.

SI.6. Use data/evidence to construct explanations and understand that scientists develop explanations based on their evidence and compare them with their current scientific knowledge.