WA.4. Physical Science
PS1. Force and Motion
4-5.PS1. Measurement of Force and Motion: In prior grades students learned that forces work not only to push and pull objects, but also to affect objects when they are dropped or thrown. In grades 4-5 students learn how to use basic tools to measure the fundamental quantities of force, time, and distance. Force can be measured with a spring scale. Distance and time can be measured by a variety of methods, and the results can be used to compare the motion of two objects. Focusing on accuracy of measurement, recording of data and logical conclusions from the data provide the foundation for future years when students will undertake more complex investigations.
4-5.PS1A. Students know that the weight of an object is a measure of how strongly it is pulled down toward the ground by gravity. A spring scale can measure the pulling force.
4-5.PS1A.1. Students are expected to use a spring scale to measure the weights of several objects accurately. Explain that the weight of an object is a measure of the force of gravity on the object. Record the measurements in a table.
PS3. Energy: Transfer, Transformation and Conservation
4-5.PS3. Heat, Light, Sound, and Electricity: In prior grades students learned to identify several different forms of energy. In grades 4-5 students build on their intuitive understanding of energy and learn how heat, light, sound, and electrical energy are generated and can be transferred from place to place. For example, they can observe that energy of motion can be transferred from one object to another. They can observe how heat energy is generated and moves from a warmer to a cooler place, and how sound can be produced by vibrations in the throat or guitar strings or other forms of vibration. They can also see that electrical energy can do many things, including producing light, heat, and sound, and can make things move. This introduction to the many forms of energy helps to prepare students for later studies of energy transformation and conservation.
4-5.PS3A. Students know that energy has many forms, such as heat, light, sound, motion, and electricity.
4-5.PS3A.1. Students are expected to identify different forms of energy (e.g., heat, light, sound, motion, electricity) in a system.
4-5.PS3B. Students know that energy can be transferred from one place to another.
4-5.PS3B.1. Students are expected to draw and label diagrams showing several ways that energy can be transferred from one place to another (e.g., sound energy passing through air, electrical energy through a wire, heat energy conducted through a frying pan, light energy through space).
4-5.PS3C. Students know that heat energy can be generated a number of ways and can move (transfer) from one place to another. Heat energy is transferred from warmer things to colder things.
4-5.PS3C.2. Students are expected to give examples of two different ways that heat energy can move from one place to another, and explain which direction the heat moves (e.g., when placing a pot on the stove, heat moves from the hot burner to the cooler pot).