OH.3. Physical Sciences: Students demonstrate an understanding of the composition of physical systems and the concepts and principles that describe and predict physical interactions and events in the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding of the structure and properties of matter, the properties of materials and objects, chemical reactions and the conservation of matter. In addition, it includes understanding the nature, transfer and conservation of energy; motion and the forces affecting motion; and the nature of waves and interactions of matter and energy. Students demonstrate an understanding of the historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with the physical sciences.
3.1. Grade Level Indicator: Nature of Energy: Define temperature as the measure of thermal energy and describe the way it is measured.
OH.5. Scientific Inquiry: Students develop scientific habits of mind as they use the processes of scientific inquiry to ask valid questions and to gather and analyze information. They understand how to develop hypotheses and make predictions. They are able to reflect on scientific practices as they develop plans of action to create and evaluate a variety of conclusions. Students are also able to demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others.
5.1. Grade Level Indicator: Doing Scientific Inquiry: Select and safely use the appropriate tools to collect data when conducting investigations and communicating findings to others (e.g., thermometers, timers, balances, spring scales, magnifiers, microscopes and other appropriate tools).
5.2. Grade Level Indicator: Doing Scientific Inquiry: Evaluate observations and measurements made by other people and identify reasons for any discrepancies.
5.3. Grade Level Indicator: Doing Scientific Inquiry: Use evidence and observations to explain and communicate the results of investigations.
5.4. Grade Level Indicator: Doing Scientific Inquiry: Identify one or two variables in a simple experiment.
5.6. Grade Level Indicator: Doing Scientific Inquiry: Explain why results of an experiment are sometimes different (e.g., because of unexpected differences in what is being investigated, unrealized differences in the methods used or in the circumstances in which the investigation was carried out, and because of errors in observations).
5.A. Use appropriate instruments safely to observe, measure and collect data when conducting a scientific investigation.
5.B. Organize and evaluate observations, measurements and other data to formulate inferences and conclusions.
OH.6. Scientific Ways of Knowing: Students realize that the current body of scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding that scientific knowledge grows and advances as new evidence is discovered to support or modify existing theories, as well as to encourage the development of new theories. Students are able to reflect on ethical scientific practices and demonstrate an understanding of how the current body of scientific knowledge reflects the historical and cultural contributions of women and men who provide us with a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the natural world.
6.2. Grade Level Indicator: Nature of Science: Develop descriptions, explanations and models using evidence to defend/support findings.
6.4. Grade Level Indicator: Nature of Science: Identify how scientists use different kinds of ongoing investigations depending on the questions they are trying to answer (e.g., observations of things or events in nature, data collection and controlled experiments).
6.B. Describe different types of investigations and use results and data from investigations to provide the evidence to support explanations and conclusions.