DE.2. Materials and Their Properties
2.1. Properties and Structure of Materials
Enduring Understanding: The structures of materials determine their properties.
2.1.A. All matter consists of particles too small to be seen with the naked eye. The arrangement, motion, and interaction of these particles determine the three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). Particles in all three states are in constant motion. In the solid state, tightly packed particles have a limited range of motion. In the liquid state, particles are loosely packed and move past each other. In the gaseous state, particles are free to move. (Level: Essential)
2.1.C. Some physical properties, such as mass and volume, depend upon the amount of material. Other physical properties, such as density and melting point, are independent of the quantity of material. Density and melting point are unique physical properties for a material. Tools such as microscopes, scales, beakers, graduated cylinders, Celsius thermometers, and metric rulers are used to measure physical properties. (Level: Essential)
DE.3. Energy and Its Effects
3.3. Energy Interacting With Materials; the Transformation and Conservation of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.
3.3.A. Energy can be transformed from one form into another. Energy transformations often take place while energy is being transferred to another object or substance. Energy transformations and energy transfers can be used to explain how energy flows through a physical system (e.g., photosynthesis, weathering, electrical circuits). (Level: Essential)