WA.1. Systems (SYS)
6-8.SYS. Inputs, Outputs, Boundaries, and Flows: In prior grades students learned about the functioning of simple systems, including inputs and outputs. In grades 6-8 students learn how to use systems thinking to simplify and analyze complex situations. Systems concepts that students learn to apply at this level include choosing system boundaries, determining if a system is open or closed, measuring the flow of matter and energy through a system, and applying systems thinking to a complex societal issue that involves science and technology. These insights and abilities can help students see the connections between and among the domains of science and among science, technology, and society.
6-8.SYSA. Students know that any system may be thought of as containing subsystems and as being a subsystem of a larger system.
6-8.SYSA.1. Students are expected, to given a system, identify subsystems and a larger encompassing system (e.g., the heart is a system made up of tissues and cells, and is part of the larger circulatory system).
6-8.SYSB. Students know that the boundaries of a system can be drawn differently depending on the features of the system being investigated, the size of the system, and the purpose of the investigation.
6-8.SYSB.1. Students are expected to explain how the boundaries of a system can be drawn to fit the purpose of the study (e.g., to study how insect populations change, a system might be a forest, a meadow in the forest, or a single tree).
6-8.SYSC. Students know that the output of one system can become the input of another system.
6-8.SYSC.1. Students are expected to give an example of how output of matter or energy from a system can become input for another system (e.g., household waste goes to a landfill).
6-8.SYSD. Students know that in an open system, matter flows into and out of the system. In a closed system, energy may flow into or out of the system, but matter stays within the system.
6-8.SYSD.1. Students are expected, to given a description of a system, analyze and defend whether it is open or closed.
6-8.SYSE. Students know that if the input of matter or energy is the same as the output, then the amount of matter or energy in the system won't change; but if the input is more or less than the output, then the amount of matter or energy in the system will change.
6-8.SYSE.1. Students are expected to measure the flow of matter into and out of an open system and predict how the system is likely to change (e.g., a bottle of water with a hole in the bottom, an ecosystem, an electric circuit).
WA.4. Life Science
LS1. Structure and Function of Living Organisms
6-8.LS1. From Cells to Organisms: In prior grades students learned how structures in the body work together to respond to internal and external needs. In grades 6-8 students learn that all living systems are composed of cells which make up tissues, organs, and organ systems. At each level of organization, the structures enable specific functions required by the organism. Lifestyle choices and environmental conditions can affect parts of the human body, which may affect the health of the body as a whole. Understanding how organisms operate as systems helps students understand the commonalities among life forms, provides an introduction to further study of biology, and offers scientific insights into the ways that personal choices may affect health.
6-8.LS1C. Students know that multicellular organisms have specialized cells that perform different functions. These cells join together to form tissues that give organs their structure and enable the organs to perform specialized functions within organ systems.
6-8.LS1C.1. Students are expected to relate the structure of a specialized cell (e.g., nerve and muscle cells) to the function that the cell performs.
6-8.LS1C.2. Students are expected to explain the relationship between tissues that make up individual organs and the functions the organ performs (e.g., valves in the heart control blood flow, air sacs in the lungs maximize surface area for transfer of gases).
6-8.LS1C.3. Students are expected to describe the components and functions of the digestive, circulatory, and respiratory systems in humans and how these systems interact.