CA.CC.RST.6-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects
Craft and Structure
RST.6-8.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6–8 texts and topics.
CA.ES. Focus on Earth Sciences
Energy in the Earth System
ES.4. Many phenomena on Earth's surface are affected by the transfer of energy through radiation and convection currents. As a basis for understanding this concept:
ES.4.b. Students know solar energy reaches Earth through radiation, mostly in the form of visible light.
ES.4.c. Students know heat from Earth's interior reaches the surface primarily through convection.
Heat (Thermal Energy) (Physical Science)
ES.3. Heat moves in a predictable flow from warmer objects to cooler objects until all the objects are at the same temperature. As a basis for understanding this concept:
ES.3.a. Students know energy can be carried from one place to another by heat flow or by waves, including water, light and sound waves, or by moving objects.
ES.3.c. Students know heat flows in solids by conduction (which involves no flow of matter) and in fluids by conduction and by convection (which involves flow of matter).
ES.3.d. Students know heat energy is also transferred between objects by radiation (radiation can travel through space).
Plate Tectonics and Earth's Structure
ES.1. Plate tectonics accounts for important features of Earth's surface and major geologic events. As a basis for understanding this concept:
ES.1.a. Students know evidence of plate tectonics is derived from the fit of the continents; the location of earthquakes, volcanoes, and midocean ridges; and the distribution of fossils, rock types, and ancient climatic zones.
ES.1.b. Students know Earth is composed of several layers: a cold, brittle lithosphere; a hot, convecting mantle; and a dense, metallic core.
ES.1.c. Students know lithospheric plates the size of continents and oceans move at rates of centimeters per year in response to movements in the mantle.