DE.6. Life Processes
6.1. Structure/Function Relationship
Enduring Understanding: Living systems, from the organismic to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
6.1.B. Living systems in all kingdoms demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. Important levels of organization for structure and function include cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. (Level: Important)
6.1.C. Most organisms are single celled while others are multi-cellular. Multi-cellular organisms consist of individual cells that cannot survive independently, while single-celled organisms are composed of one cell that can survive independently. (Level: Important)
6.1.D. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Cells have basic needs for survival. They use energy, consume materials, require water, eliminate waste, and reproduce. (Level: Essential)
6.1.E. Most cells contain a set of observable structures called organelles which allow them to carry out life processes. Major organelles include vacuoles, cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria. Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts. (Level: Important)
6.2. Matter and Energy Transformations
Enduring Understanding: All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain structures within the organism.
6.2.A. All organisms require energy. A general distinction among organisms is that plants use solar energy to make their own food (sugar) and animals acquire energy directly or indirectly from plants. (Level: Essential)
6.2.B. Plants use the energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce sugars (photosynthesis). Plants can use the food (sugar) immediately or store it for later use. (Level: Essential)
6.2.C. Most living things use sugar (from food) and oxygen to release the energy needed to carry out life processes (cellular respiration). Other materials from food are used for building and repairing cell parts. (Level: Important)
DE.7. Diversity and Continuity of Living Things
7.2. Diversity and Evolution
Enduring Understanding: The diversity and changing of life forms over many generations is the result of natural selection, in which organisms with advantageous traits survive, reproduce, and pass those traits to offspring.
7.2.A. The Earth's present day species evolved from earlier, distinctly different species. Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of the Earth and for the long history of changing life forms whose remains are found in the rocks. More recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species. (Level: Compact)
7.2.E. There is a wide diversity of organisms on Earth. These organisms may be classified in a number of ways. One classification system places organisms into five kingdoms (monera, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia) based on similarities in structure. (Level: Important)
8.2. Energy Flow and Material Cycles in the Environment
Enduring Understandings: Matter needed to sustain life is continually recycled among and between organisms and the environment. Energy from the Sun flows irreversibly through ecosystems and is conserved as organisms use and transform it.
8.2.A. In most ecosystems, energy enters as sunlight and is transformed by producers into a biologically usable form of matter through photosynthesis. That matter and energy then passes from organism to organism through food webs. Some energy is released from the system as heat. (Level: Essential)