New Jersey Standards
NJ.5.4.8. Earth Systems Science: Earth operates as a set of complex, dynamic, and interconnected systems, and is a part of the all-encompassing system of the universe.
5.4.8.A. Objects in the Universe: Our universe has been expanding and evolving for 13.7 billion years under the influence of gravitational and nuclear forces. As gravity governs its expansion, organizational patterns, and the movement of celestial bodies, nuclear forces within stars govern its evolution through the processes of stellar birth and death. These same processes governed the formation of our solar system 4.6 billion years ago.
Earth’s tilt, rotation, and revolution around the Sun cause changes in the height and duration of the Sun in the sky. These factors combine to explain the changes in the length of the day and seasons.
5.4.8.A.2. Use evidence of global variations in day length, temperature, and the amount of solar radiation striking Earth's surface to create models that explain these phenomena and seasons.
The regular and predictable motion of objects in the solar system (Kepler’s Laws) is explained by gravitational forces.
5.4.8.A.4. Analyze data regarding the motion of comets, planets, and moons to find general patterns of orbital motion.
The relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon result in the phases of the Moon, eclipses, and the daily and monthly cycle of tides.
5.4.8.A.1. Analyze moon-phase, eclipse, and tidal data to construct models that explain how the relative positions and motions of the Sun, Earth, and Moon cause these three phenomena.