WA.4. Earth and Space Science
ES1. Earth in Space
6-8.ES1. The Solar System: In prior years, students learned the implications of the spherical-Earth concept and Earth's relationship to the Sun. In grades 6-8 students study the Moon's changing phases and learn to distinguish between phases and eclipses. They also learn about other objects in the Solar System and how they are held together by a force called "gravity." Students also learn about the Sun's position in the Milky Way, which is just one of many galaxies in the universe. This broad overview of Earth in space will provide a useful framework for students to understand new discoveries in astronomy and new milestones in the exploration of space.
6-8.ES1A. Students know that the Moon's monthly cycle of phases can be explained by its changing relative position as it orbits Earth. An eclipse of the Moon occurs when the Moon enters Earth's shadow. An eclipse of the Sun occurs when the Moon is between the Earth and Sun, and the Moon's shadow falls on the Earth.
6-8.ES1A.1. Students are expected to use a physical model or diagram to explain how the Moon's changing position in its orbit results in the changing phases of the Moon as observed from Earth.
6-8.ES1A.2. Students are expected to explain how the cause of an eclipse of the Moon is different from the cause of the Moon's phases.
6-8.ES1B. Students know that earth is the third planet from the sun in a system that includes the Moon, the Sun, seven other major planets and their moons, and smaller objects such as asteroids, plutoids, dwarf planets and comets. These bodies differ in many characteristics (e.g., size, composition, relative position).
6-8.ES1B.1. Students are expected to compare the relative sizes and distances of the Sun, Moon, Earth, other major planets, moons, asteroids, plutoids, and comets.
6-8.ES1C. Students know that most objects in the Solar System are in regular and predictable motion. These motions explain such phenomena as the day, the year, phases of the Moon, and eclipses.
6-8.ES1C.1. Students are expected to use a simple physical model or labeled drawing of the Earth-Sun-Moon system to explain day and night, phases of the Moon, and eclipses of the Moon and Sun.
6-8.ES1D. Students know that gravity is the force that keeps planets in orbit around the Sun and governs the rest of the motion in the Solar System. Gravity alone holds us to the Earth's surface.
6-8.ES1D.1. Students are expected to predict what would happen to an orbiting object if gravity were increased, decreased, or taken away.