WA.4. Physical Science
PS3. Energy: Transfer, Transformation, and Conservation
6-8.PS3. Interactions of Energy and Matter: In prior grades students learned how heat, light, sound, and electrical energy are generated and can be transferred from place to place. In grades 6-8 students learn how energy and matter interact in various settings. Heat (thermal energy) always moves from a warmer to a cooler place through solids (by conduction) and through liquids and gases (mostly by convection or mechanical mixing). Light energy interacts with matter and with our eyes and allows us to see things. Electrical energy provides a convenient way to transfer energy to where and when the energy is needed. Sound is yet another form of energy produced by a vibrating object. These fundamental concepts of how matter and energy interact have broad application in all of the other sciences.
6-8.PS3A. Students know that energy exists in many forms which include: heat, light, chemical, electrical, motion of objects, and sound. Energy can be transformed from one form to another and transferred from one place to another.
6-8.PS3A.2. Students are expected to describe ways in which energy is transformed from one form to another and transferred from one place to another (e.g., chemical to electrical energy in a battery, electrical to light energy in a bulb).
6-8.PS3B. Students know that heat (thermal energy) flows from warmer to cooler objects until both reach the same temperature. Conduction, radiation, and convection, or mechanical mixing, are means of energy transfer.
6-8.PS3B.1. Students are expected to use everyday examples of conduction, radiation, and convection, or mechanical mixing, to illustrate the transfer of energy from warmer objects to cooler ones until the objects reach the same temperature.
6-8.PS3C. Students know that heat (thermal energy) consists of random motion and the vibrations of atoms and molecules. The higher the temperature, the greater the atomic or molecular motion. Thermal insulators are materials that resist the flow of heat.
6-8.PS3C.1. Students are expected to explain how various types of insulation slow transfer of heat energy based on the atomic-molecular model of heat (thermal energy).