WA.4. Earth and Space Science
ES2. Earth Systems, Structures, and Processes
6-8.ES2. Cycles in Earth Systems: In prior grades students learned how Earth materials change and how they can be used for various purposes. In grades 6-8 students learn about planet Earth as an interacting system of solids, liquids, and gases. Solar energy powers the water cycle and drives the weather system and ocean currents. Energy from within the planet drives the rock cycle and moves huge plates on the Earth's surface, causing earthquakes and volcanoes. The landforms we see today result from processes that build up and break down Earth structures. These fundamental ideas will enable students to understand the history of their planet, Earth processes occurring today, and future geologic events.
6-8.ES2E. The solid Earth is composed of a relatively thin crust, a dense metallic core, and a layer called the mantle between the crust and core that is very hot and partially melted.
6-8.ES2E.1. Students are expected to sketch and label the major layers of Earth, showing the approximate relative thicknesses and consistency of the crust, core, and mantle.
6-8.ES2F. The crust is composed of huge crustal plates on the scale of continents and oceans which move centimeters per year, pushed by convection in the upper mantle, causing earthquakes, volcanoes, and mountains.
6-8.ES2F.1. Students are expected to draw a labeled diagram showing how convection in the upper mantle drives movement of crustal plates.
6-8.ES2F.2. Students are expected to describe what may happen when plate boundaries meet (e.g., earthquakes, tsunami, faults, mountain building), with examples from the Pacific Northwest.