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Pennsylvania Standards for High School Science

PA.3. Science and Technology and Engineering Education

3.1. Biological Sciences

3.1.A. Organisms and Cells
3.1.10.A2. Explain cell processes in terms of chemical reactions and energy changes.
3.1.10.A4. Describe the cell cycle and the process and significance of mitosis.
3.1.10.A5. Relate life processes to sub-cellular and cellular structures to their functions.
3.1.10.A6. Identify the advantages of multi-cellularity in organisms.
3.1.10.A7a. Describe the relationship between the structure of organic molecules and the function they serve in living organisms.
3.1.10.A7b. Explain how cells store and use information to guide their functions.
3.1.10.A8. Investigate the spatial relationships of organisms' anatomical features using specimens, models, or computer programs.
3.1.B. Genetics
3.1.10.B1. Describe how genetic information is inherited and expressed.
3.1.10.B2a. Explain the process of meiosis resulting in the formation of gametes.
3.1.10.B2b. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
3.1.10.B3a. Describe the basic structure of DNA and its function in genetic inheritance.
3.1.10.B3b. Describe the role of DNA in protein synthesis as it relates to gene expression.
3.1.10.B4. Explain how genetic technologies have impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture.
3.1.10.B5a. (PATTERNS) Use models to demonstrate patterns in biomacromolecules.
3.1.10.B5b. Compare and contrast Mendelian and non-Medalian patterns of inheritance.
3.1.C. Evolution
3.1.10.C1. Explain the mechanisms of biological evolution.
3.1.10.C2. Explain the role of mutations and gene recombination in changing a population of organisms.
3.1.10.C3. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Interpret data from fossil records, anatomy and physiology, and DNA studies relevant to the theory of evolution.

3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics

3.2.A. Chemistry
3.2.10.A1a. Predict properties of elements using trends of the periodic table.
3.2.10.A1b. Identify properties of matter that depend on sample size. Explain the unique properties of water (polarity, high boiling point, forms hydrogen bonds, high specific heat) that support life on Earth.
3.2.10.A2a. Compare and contrast different bond types that result in the formation of molecules and compounds.
3.2.10.A2b. Explain why compounds are composed of integer ratios of elements.
3.2.10.A3. Describe phases of matter according to the kinetic molecular theory.
3.2.10.A4a. Describe chemical reactions in terms of atomic rearrangement and/or electron transfer.
3.2.10.A4c. Explain the difference between endothermic and exothermic reactions.
3.2.10.A4d. Identify the factors that affect the rates of reactions.
3.2.10.A5a. (MODELS) Describe the historical development of models of the atom and how they contributed to modern atomic theory.
3.2.B. Physics
3.2.10.B1a. Analyze the relationships among the net forces acting on a body, the mass of the body, and the resulting acceleration using Newton's Second Law of Motion.
3.2.10.B1d. Describe how interactions between objects conserve momentum.
3.2.10.B1e. Conservation Laws
3.2.10.B2a. Explain how the overall energy flowing through a system remains constant.
3.2.10.B2b. Describe the work-energy theorem.
3.2.10.B2c. Explain the relationships between work and power.
3.2.10.B3a. Explain how heat energy will move from a higher temperature to a lower temperature until equilibrium is reached.
3.2.10.B3b. Analyze the processes of convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.
3.2.10.B4a. Describe quantitatively the relationships between voltage, current, and resistance to electrical energy and power.
3.2.10.B5a. Understand that waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
3.2.10.B5b. Compare and contrast the wave nature of light and sound.
3.2.10.B5c. Describe the components of the electromagnetic spectrum. Describe the difference between sound and light waves.
3.2.10.B6. (PATTERNS SCALE MODELS CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Explain how the behavior of matter and energy follow predictable patterns that are defined by laws.

3.3. Earth and Space Sciences

3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles
3.3.10.A1a. Relate plate tectonics to both slow and rapid changes in the earth's surface.
3.3.10.A1b. Describe the rock cycle and the processes that are responsible for the formation of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.
3.3.10.A1c. Relate geochemical cycles to the conservation of matter.
3.3.10.A1d. Explain how the Earth is composed of a number of dynamic, interacting systems exchanging energy or matter.
3.3.10.A2. Analyze the effects on the environment and the carbon cycle of using both renewable and nonrenewable sources of energy.
3.3.10.A3. Explain how the evolution of Earth has been driven by interactions between the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere.
3.3.10.A4a. Relate geochemical cycles to conservation of matter.
3.3.10.A5a. Explain how there is only one ocean.
3.3.10.A5b. Explain the processes of the hydrologic cycle.
3.3.10.A5c. Explain the dynamics of oceanic currents and their relationship to global circulation within the marine environment.
3.3.10.A6a. Interpret meteorological data to describe and/or predict weather.
3.3.10.A6b. Explain the phenomena that cause global atmospheric processes such as storms, currents, and wind patterns.
3.3.10.A7a. (SCALE/MODELS) Interpret and create models of the Earth's physical features in various mapping representations.
3.3.10.A7b. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Relate constancy and change to the hydrologic and geochemical cycles.
3.3.10.A7c. (SCALE) Apply an appropriate scale to illustrate major events throughout geologic time.
3.3.10.A7d. (CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Describe factors that contribute to global climate change.
3.3.10.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe
3.3.10.B1a. Explain how gravity is responsible for planetary orbits.
3.3.10.B1b. Explain what caused the sun, Earth, and most of the other planets to form between 4 and 5 billion years ago.
3.3.10.B1c. Provide evidence to suggest the Big Bang Theory.
3.3.10.B1d. Describe the basic nuclear processes involved in energy production in a star.
3.3.10.B2a. (SCALE AND MEASUREMENT) Explain how scientists obtain information about the universe by using technology to detect electromagnetic radiation that is emitted, reflected, or absorbed by stars and other objects.
3.3.10.B2b. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Describe changes in the universe over billions of years.
3.3.10.B2c. (SCALE AND MEASUREMENT) Explain the scale used to measure the sizes of stars and galaxies and the distances between them.
3.3.10.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.

3.4. Technology and Engineering Education

3.4.A. The Scope of Technology
3.4.10.A3. Examine how technology transfer occurs when a new user applies an existing innovation developed for one purpose in a different function.
3.4.B. Technology and Society
3.4.10.B1. Compare and contrast how the use of technology involves weighing the trade-offs between the positive and negative effects.
3.4.10.B4. Recognize that technological development has been evolutionary, the result of a series of refinements to a basic invention.
3.4.D. Abilities for a Technological World
3.4.10.D3. Synthesize data, analyze trends, and draw conclusions regarding the effect of technology on the individual, society, and the environment.
3.4.E. The Designed World
3.4.10.E1. Assess how medical technologies over time have impacted prevention and rehabilitation, vaccines and pharmaceuticals, medical and surgical procedures, and genetic engineering.
3.4.10.E3. thermal, radiant, electrical, mechanical, chemical, nuclear and others.

PA.4. Environment and Ecology

4.1. Ecology

4.1.10.C. Evaluate the efficiency of energy flow within a food web.
4.1.10.C.1. Describe how energy is converted from one form to another as it moves through a food web (photosynthetic, geothermal)
4.1.10.D. Research practices that impact biodiversity in specific ecosystems.
4.1.10.D.1. Analyze the relationship between habitat changes to plant and animal population fluctuations.
4.1.10.E. Analyze how humans influence the pattern of natural changes (e.g. primary /secondary succession and desertification) in ecosystems over time.
4.1.10.F. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.

4.2. Watersheds and Wetlands

4.2.10.A. Examine the interactions between abiotic and biotic factors within a watershed.
4.2.10.A.3. Investigate and analyze the effects of land use on the quality of water in a watershed.
4.2.10.D. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators

4.3. Natural Resources

4.3.10.A. Evaluate factors affecting the use of natural resources.
4.3.10.A.1. Evaluate the effect of consumer demands on the use of natural resources.
4.3.10.A.2. Analyze how technologies such as modern mining, harvesting, and transportation equipment affect the use of our natural resources.
4.3.10.B. Analyze how humans manage and distribute natural resources.
4.3.10.B.1. Describe the use of a natural resource with an emphasis on the environmental consequences of extracting, processing, transporting, using, and disposing of it.
4.3.10.B.2. Analyze the impact of technology on the management, distribution, and disposal of natural resources.
4.3.10.C. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.

4.4. Agriculture and Society

4.4.10.E. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators

4.5. Humans and the Environment

4.5.10.C. Analyze real world data and explain how point and non-point source pollution can be detected and eliminated.
4.5.10.C.1. Compare and contrast the environmental effects of different industrial strategies.
4.5.10.F. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators

PA.B. Biology - Science and Technology and Engineering Education

3.1. Biological Sciences

3.1.A. Organisms and Cells
3.1.B.A1b. Compare and contrast the cellular structures and degrees of complexity of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms.
3.1.B.A1c. Explain that some structures in eukaryotic cells developed from early prokaryotic cells (e.g., mitochondria, chloroplasts)
3.1.B.A2a. Identify the initial reactants, final products, and general purposes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration.
3.1.B.A2b. Explain the important role of ATP in cell metabolism.
3.1.B.A2c. Describe the relationship between photosynthesis and cellular respiration in photosynthetic organisms.
3.1.B.A2d. Explain why many biological macromolecules such as ATP and lipids contain high energy bonds.
3.1.B.A2e. Explain the importance of enzymes as catalysts in cell reactions.
3.1.B.A2f. Identify how factors such as pH and temperature may affect enzyme function.
3.1.B.A3. Explain how all organisms begin their life cycles as a single cell and that in multicellular organisms, successive generations of embryonic cells form by cell division.
3.1.B.A4a. Summarize the stages of the cell cycle.
3.1.B.A4b. Examine how interactions among the different molecules in the cell cause the distinct stages of the cell cycle which can also be influenced by other signaling molecules.
3.1.B.A4c. Explain the role of mitosis in the formation of new cells and its importance in maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
3.1.B.A5a. Relate the structure of cell organelles to their function (energy capture and release, transport, waste removal, protein synthesis, movement, etc).
3.1.B.A5c. Explain how the cell membrane functions as a regulatory structure and protective barrier for the cell.
3.1.B.A5d. Describe transport mechanisms across the plasma membrane.
3.1.B.A7a. Analyze the importance of carbon to the structure of biological macromolecules.
3.1.B.A7b. Compare and contrast the functions and structures of proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids.
3.1.B.A8a. (CHANGE AND CONSTANCY) Recognize that systems within cells and multicellular organisms interact to maintain homeostasis.
3.1.B. Genetics
3.1.B.B1a. Explain that the information passed from parents to offspring is transmitted by means of genes which are coded in DNA molecules.
3.1.B.B1b. Explain the basic process of DNA replication.
3.1.B.B1c. Describe the basic processes of transcription and translation.
3.1.B.B1d. Explain how crossing over, jumping genes, and deletion and duplication of genes results in genetic variation.
3.1.B.B1e. Explain how mutations can alter genetic information and the possible consequences on resultant cells.
3.1.B.B2a. Describe how the process of meiosis results in the formation of haploid gametes and analyze the importance of meiosis in sexual reproduction.
3.1.B.B2b. Compare and contrast the function of mitosis and meiosis.
3.1.B.B2c. Illustrate that the sorting and recombining of genes in sexual reproduction results in a great variety of possible gene combinations in offspring.
3.1.B.B3a. Describe the basic structure of DNA, including the role of hydrogen bonding.
3.1.B.B3b. Explain how the process of DNA replication results in the transmission and conservation of the genetic code.
3.1.B.B3c. Describe how transcription and translation result in gene expression.
3.1.B.B3d. Differentiate among the end products of replication, transcription, and translation.
3.1.B.B3e. Cite evidence to support that the genetic code is universal.
3.1.B.B4. Explain how genetic technologies have impacted the fields of medicine, forensics, and agriculture
3.1.B.B5b. (PATTERNS) Distinguish among observed inheritance patterns caused by several types of genetic traits (dominant, recessive, codominant, sex-linked, polygenic, incomplete dominance, multiple alleles)
3.1.B.B5c. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Explain how the processes of replication, transcription, and translation are similar in all organisms.
3.1.B.B5d. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Explain how gene actions, patterns of heredity, and reproduction of cells and organisms account for the continuity of life.
3.1.B.B5e. (SCALE) Demonstrate how inherited characteristics can be observed at the molecular, cellular, and organism levels.
3.1.C. Evolution
3.1.B.C1c. Explain how evolution through natural selection can result in changes in biodiversity through the increase or decrease of genetic diversity within a population.
3.1.B.C1d. Describe how the degree of kinship between species can be inferred from the similarity in their DNA sequences.
3.1.B.C2a. Describe the theory suggesting that life on Earth arose as a single, primitive prokaryote about 4 billion years ago and that for the next 2 billion years, a huge diversity of single celled organisms evolved.
3.1.B.C2b. Analyze how increasingly complex, multicellular organisms evolved once cells with nuclei developed.
3.1.B.C2c. Describe how mutations in sex cells may be passed on to successive generations and that the resulting phenotype may help, harm, or have little or no effect on the offspring's success in its environment.
3.1.B.C2d. Describe the relationship between environmental changes and changes in the gene pool of a population.
3.1.B.C3a. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Compare and contrast various theories of evolution.
3.1.B.C3b. (CONSTANCY AND CHANGE) Interpret data from fossil records, anatomy and physiology, and DNA studies relevant to the theory of evolution.
3.1.B.C3c. (PATTERNS) Discuss the implications of a universal genetic code for evolution.

3.3. Earth and Space Sciences

3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles
3.3.B.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe
3.3.B.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.

PA.C. Chemistry - Science and Technology and Engineering Education

3.1. Biological Sciences

3.1.A. Organisms and Cells
3.1.C.A1. Explain the chemistry of metabolism.
3.1.C.A2. Describe how changes in energy affect the rate of chemical reactions.
3.1.C.A4. Relate mitosis and meiosis at the molecular level.
3.1.C.A7. Illustrate the formation of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
3.1.B. Genetics
3.1.C.B3. Describe the structure of the DNA and RNA molecules.
3.1.C.B5. (PATTERNS) Use models to demonstrate patterns in biomacromolecules.
3.1.C. Evolution
3.1.C.C2. Use molecular models to demonstrate gene mutation and recombination at the molecular level.

3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics

3.2.A. Chemistry
3.2.C.A1a. Differentiate between physical properties and chemical properties.
3.2.C.A1b. Differentiate between pure substances and mixtures; differentiate between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures.
3.2.C.A1c. Explain the relationship of an element's position on the periodic table to its atomic number, ionization energy, electro-negativity, atomic size, and classification of elements.
3.2.C.A1d. Use electro-negativity to explain the difference between polar and non-polar covalent bonds.
3.2.C.A2a. Compare the electron configurations for the first twenty elements of the periodic table.
3.2.C.A2b. Relate the position of an element on the periodic table to its electron configuration and compare its reactivity to the reactivity of other elements in the table.
3.2.C.A2c. Explain how atoms combine to form compounds through both ionic and covalent bonding. Predict chemical formulas based on the number of valence electrons.
3.2.C.A2e. Predict the chemical formulas for simple ionic and molecular compounds.
3.2.C.A2g. Determine percent compositions, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas.
3.2.C.A3a. Describe the three normal states of matter in terms of energy, particle motion, and phase transitions.
3.2.C.A4a. Predict how combinations of substances can result in physical and/or chemical changes.
3.2.C.A4b. Interpret and apply the laws of conservation of mass, constant composition (definite proportions), and multiple proportions.
3.2.C.A4c. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass.
3.2.C.A4d. Classify chemical reactions as synthesis (combination), decomposition, single displacement (replacement), double displacement, and combustion.
3.2.C.A5a. (MODELS) Recognize discoveries from Dalton (atomic theory), Thomson (the electron), Rutherford (the nucleus), and Bohr (planetary model of atom), and understand how each discovery leads to modern theory.
3.2.C.A5b. (MODELS) Describe Rutherford's ''gold foil'' experiment that led to the discovery of the nuclear atom. Identify the major components (protons, neutrons, and electrons) of the nuclear atom and explain how they interact.
3.2.B. Physics
3.2.C.B2. Explore the natural tendency for systems to move in a direction of disorder or randomness (entropy).
3.2.C.B3a. Describe the law of conservation of energy.
3.2.C.B3b. Explain the difference between an endothermic process and an exothermic process.

3.3. Earth and Space Sciences

3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles
3.3.C.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe
3.3.C.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.

PA.P. Physics - Science and Technology and Engineering Education

3.2. Physical Sciences: Chemistry and Physics

3.2.B. Physics
3.2.P.B1a. Differentiate among translational motion, simple harmonic motion, and rotational motion in terms of position, velocity, and acceleration.
3.2.P.B1b. Use force and mass to explain translational motion or simple harmonic motion of objects.
3.2.P.B1c. Relate torque and rotational inertia to explain rotational motion.
3.2.P.B2a. Explain the translation and simple harmonic motion of objects using conservation of energy and conservation of momentum.
3.2.P.B2b. Describe the rotational motion of objects using the conservation of energy and conservation of angular momentum.
3.2.P.B3. Analyze the factors that influence convection, conduction, and radiation between objects or regions that are at different temperatures.
3.2.P.B4b. Develop qualitative and quantitative understanding of current, voltage, resistance, and the connections among them.
3.2.P.B5a. Explain how waves transfer energy without transferring matter.
3.2.P.B5c. Describe the causes of wave frequency, speed, and wave length.
3.2.P.B6. (PATTERNS SCALE MODELS CONSTANCY/CHANGE) Use Newton's laws of motion and gravitation to describe and predict the motion of objects ranging from atoms to the galaxies.

3.3. Earth and Space Sciences

3.3.A. Earth Structure, Processes and Cycles
3.3.P.A8. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.
3.3.B. Origin and Evolution of the Universe
3.3.P.B3. See Science as Inquiry in the Introduction for grade level indicators.

PA.SI. Science as Inquiry

SI.2. Know that both direct and indirect observations are used by scientists to study the natural world and universe.

SI.4. Formulate and revise explanations and models using logic and evidence.

SI.5. Recognize and analyze alternative explanations and models.

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