Virginia Standards of Learning
VA.SS.VS. Virginia Studies
Civil War and Postwar Eras
VS.7. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by:
VS.7.a. Explaining the major events and the differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia.
VA.SS.USI. United States History to 1865
Revolution and the New Nation: 1770s to the Early 1800s
USI.7. The student will apply social science skills to understand the challenges faced by the new nation by:
USI.7.c. Describing the major accomplishments of the first five presidents of the United States.
Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861
USI.8. The student will apply social science skills to understand westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by:
USI.8.a. Describing territorial expansion and how it affected the political map of the United States, with emphasis on the Louisiana Purchase, the Lewis and Clark expedition, and the acquisitions of Florida, Texas, Oregon, and California.
USI.8.d. Describing the impact of inventions, including the cotton gin, the reaper, the steamboat, and the steam locomotive, on life in America.
Civil War: 1861 to 1865
USI.9. The student will apply social science skills to understand the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by:
USI.9.d. Describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war.
USI.9.f. Describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.
VA.SS.USII. United States History: 1865 to the Present
Reconstruction: 1865 to 1877
USII.3. The student will apply social science skills to understand the effects of Reconstruction on American life by:
USII.3.c. Describing the legacies of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of Modern America: 1877 to the Early 1900s
USII.4. The student will apply social science skills to understand how life changed after the Civil War by:
USII.4.d. Explaining the impact of new inventions, the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and the changes to life on American farms in response to industrialization.
Turmoil and Change: 1890s to 1945
USII.6. The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by:
USII.6.a. Explaining how developments in factory and labor productivity, transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life and standard of living.
The United States since World War II
USII.9. The student will apply social science skills to understand the key domestic and international issues during the second half of the twentieth and early twenty-first centuries by:
USII.9.a. Examining the impact of the Civil Rights Movement, the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), and the changing role of women on all Americans.
VA.SS.VUS. Virginia and United States History
VUS.1. The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by:
VUS.1.a. Synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.d. Constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources.
VUS.1.e. Comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.h. Using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made.
VUS.1.j. Investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.
Civil War and Reconstruction
VUS.7. The student will apply social science skills to understand the Civil War and Reconstruction eras and their significance as major turning points in American history by:
VUS.7.a. Describing major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War era, with emphasis on Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
VUS.7.b. Evaluating and explaining the significance and development of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership and political statements, including the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in the Gettysburg Address.
VUS.8. The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by:
VUS.8.a. Explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians.
VUS.8.b. Analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities.