Virginia Standards of Learning
VA.SS.USI. United States History to 1865
Expansion and Reform: 1801 to 1861
USI.8. The student will apply social science skills to understand westward expansion and reform in America from 1801 to 1861 by:
USI.8.b. Explaining how geographic and economic factors influenced the westward movement of settlers.
Civil War: 1861 to 1865
USI.9. The student will apply social science skills to understand the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by:
USI.9.d. Describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war.
VA.SS.USII. United States History: 1865 to the Present
USII.2. The student will use maps, globes, photographs, pictures, or tables for:
USII.2.a. Explaining how physical features and climate influenced the movement of people westward.
Reconstruction: 1865 to 1877
USII.3. The student will apply social science skills to understand the effects of Reconstruction on American life by:
USII.3.c. Describing the legacies of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of Modern America: 1877 to the Early 1900s
USII.4. The student will apply social science skills to understand how life changed after the Civil War by:
USII.4.a. Examining the reasons for westward expansion, including its impact on American Indians.
VA.SS.VUS. Virginia and United States History
VUS.1. The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by:
VUS.1.a. Synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.d. Constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources.
VUS.1.e. Comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.f. Explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.g. Analyzing multiple connections across time and place.
VUS.1.h. Using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made.
VUS.1.j. Investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.
VUS.6. The student will apply social science skills to understand major events in Virginia and United States history during the first half of the nineteenth century by:
VUS.6.b. Describing the political results of territorial expansion.
Civil War and Reconstruction
VUS.7. The student will apply social science skills to understand the Civil War and Reconstruction eras and their significance as major turning points in American history by:
VUS.7.a. Describing major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War era, with emphasis on Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
VUS.7.b. Evaluating and explaining the significance and development of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership and political statements, including the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in the Gettysburg Address.
VUS.8. The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by:
VUS.8.a. Explaining the westward movement of the population in the United States, with emphasis on the role of the railroads, communication systems, admission of new states to the Union, and the impact on American Indians.