California Content Standards
CA.5. United States History and Geography: Making a New Nation
5.2. Students trace the routes of early explorers and describe the early explorations of the Americas.
5.2.1. Describe the entrepreneurial characteristics of early explorers (e.g., Christopher Columbus, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado) and the technological developments that made sea exploration by latitude and longitude possible (e.g., compass, sextant, astrolabe, seaworthy ships, chronometers, gunpowder).
5.2.2. Explain the aims, obstacles, and accomplishments of the explorers, sponsors, and leaders of key European expeditions and the reasons Europeans chose to explore and colonize the world (e.g., the Spanish Reconquista, the Protestant Reformation, the Counter Reformation).
5.3. Students describe the cooperation and conflict that existed among the American Indians and between the Indian nations and the new settlers.
5.3.2. Describe the cooperation that existed between the colonists and Indians during the 1600s and 1700s (e.g., in agriculture, the fur trade, military alliances, treaties, cultural interchanges).
5.3.6. Explain the influence and achievements of significant leaders of the time (e.g., John Marshall, Andrew Jackson, Chief Tecumseh, Chief Logan, Chief John Ross, Sequoyah).
5.4. Students understand the political, religious, social, and economic institutions that evolved in the colonial era.
5.4.1. Understand the influence of location and physical setting on the founding of the original 13 colonies, and identify on a map the locations of the colonies and of the American Indian nations already inhabiting these areas.
CA.K-5.HSSA. Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills: The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for kindergarten through grade five. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in kindergarten through grade five. In addition to the standards for kindergarten through grade five, students demonstrate the following intellectual, reasoning, reflection, and research skills.
K-5.CST. Chronological and Spatial Thinking
K-5.CST.1. Students place key events and people of the historical era they are studying in a chronological sequence and within a spatial context; they interpret time lines.
K-5.CST.2. Students correctly apply terms related to time, including past, present, future, decade, century, and generation.
K-5.CST.3. Students explain how the present is connected to the past, identifying both similarities and differences between the two, and how some things change over time and some things stay the same.
K-5.CST.4. Students use map and globe skills to determine the absolute locations of places and interpret information available through a map's or globe's legend, scale, and symbolic representations.
K-5.REPV. Research, Evidence, and Point of View
K-5.REPV.2. Students pose relevant questions about events they encounter in historical documents, eyewitness accounts, oral histories, letters, diaries, artifacts, photographs, maps, artworks, and architecture.
K-5.HI. Historical Interpretation
K-5.HI.1. Students summarize the key events of the era they are studying and explain the historical contexts of those events.
K-5.HI.2. Students identify the human and physical characteristics of the places they are studying and explain how those features form the unique character of those places.