Virginia Standards of Learning
VA.SS.VS. Virginia Studies
Civil War and Postwar Eras
VS.7. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the issues that divided our nation and led to the Civil War by:
VS.7.a. Explaining the major events and the differences between northern and southern states that divided Virginians and led to secession, war, and the creation of West Virginia.
VA.SS.USI. United States History to 1865
Civil War: 1861 to 1865
USI.9. The student will apply social science skills to understand the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by:
USI.9.d. Describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war.
USI.9.e. Describing critical developments in the war, including the location of major battles.
USI.9.f. Describing the effects of war from the perspectives of Union and Confederate soldiers (including African American soldiers), women, and enslaved African Americans.
VA.SS.USII. United States History: 1865 to the Present
Reconstruction: 1865 to 1877
USII.3. The student will apply social science skills to understand the effects of Reconstruction on American life by:
USII.3.c. Describing the legacies of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
VA.SS.VUS. Virginia and United States History
VUS.1. The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by:
VUS.1.a. Synthesizing evidence from artifacts and primary and secondary sources to obtain information about events in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.d. Constructing arguments, using evidence from multiple sources.
VUS.1.e. Comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.f. Explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.g. Analyzing multiple connections across time and place.
VUS.1.h. Using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made.
VUS.1.j. Investigating and researching to develop products orally and in writing.
VUS.6. The student will apply social science skills to understand major events in Virginia and United States history during the first half of the nineteenth century by:
VUS.6.g. Evaluating and explaining the multiple causes and compromises leading to the Civil War, including the role of the institution of slavery.
Civil War and Reconstruction
VUS.7. The student will apply social science skills to understand the Civil War and Reconstruction eras and their significance as major turning points in American history by:
VUS.7.a. Describing major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War era, with emphasis on Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
VUS.7.b. Evaluating and explaining the significance and development of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership and political statements, including the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in the Gettysburg Address.
VUS.7.c. Evaluating and explaining the impact of the war on Americans, with emphasis on Virginians, African Americans, the common soldier, and the home front.