New Mexico Standards 8th Grade Social Studies Activities
Printable Eighth Grade Social Studies Worksheets and Study Guides.
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NM.I: History: Students are able to identify important people and events in order to analyze significant patterns, relationships, themes, ideas, beliefs, and turning points in New Mexico, United States, and world history in order to understand the complexity of the human experience. Students will:
1-A: New Mexico: explore and explain how people and events have influenced the development of New Mexico up to the present day:
1-A:2. Analyze New Mexico's role and impact on the outcome of the civil war (e.g., strategic geographic location, significance of the battle of Glorieta Pass, trade routes to California, native allegiances); and
1-A:3. Explain the role New Mexico played in the United States participation in the Spanish American war.
1-B: United States: analyze and interpret major eras, events and individuals from the periods of exploration and colonization through the civil war and reconstruction in United States history:
1-B:1. Describe, evaluate and interpret the economic and political reasons for the American revolution, to include:
1-B:1.a. Attempts to regulate colonial trade through passage of Tea Act, Stamp Act and Intolerable Acts; colonists' reaction to British policy (e.g., boycotts, the sons of liberty, petitions, appeals to parliament);
1-B:1.b. The ideas expressed in the declaration of independence, including the preamble;
1-B:2. Describe the aspirations, ideals and events that served as the foundation for the creation of a new national government, to include:
1-B:2.a. Articles of confederation, the constitution and the success of each in implementing the ideals of the declaration of independence;
1-B:2.b. Major debates of the constitutional convention and their resolution (e.g., the federalist papers), contributions and roles of major individuals in the writing and ratification of the constitution (e.g., George Washington, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, James Monroe, John Jay);
1-B:2.c. Struggles over ratification of the constitution and the creation of the bill of rights;
1-B:3. Describe and explain the actions taken to build one nation from thirteen states, to include:
1-B:3.a. Precedents established by George Washington (e.g., cabinet, two-term presidency); Alexander Hamilton's financial plan (e.g., the national bank, payment of debts);
1-B:4. Describe the successes and failures of the reforms during the age of Jackson, to include:
1-B:4.a. Extension of franchise to all white men;
1-B:4.b. Indian removal, the trail of tears, the long walk;
1-B:4.c. Abolition movement (e.g., Quakers, Harriet Tubman, underground railroad);
1-B:5. Describe, explain and analyze the aims and impact of western expansion and the settlement of the United States, to include:
1-B:5.a. American belief in manifest destiny and how it led to the Mexican war and its consequences;
1-B:5.b. Comparison of African American and Native American slavery; westward migration of peoples (e.g., Oregon, California, Mormons and southwest);
1-B:5.c. Origins and early history of the women's movement;
1-B:6. Explain how sectionalism led to the civil war, to include:
1-B:6.a. Different economies that developed in the north, south and west; addition of new states to the union and the balance of power in the United States senate (Missouri and 1850 compromises);
1-B:6.b. Extension of slavery into the territories (e.g., Dred Scott decision, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Frederick Douglass, John Brown);
1-B:6.c. Presidential election of 1860, Lincoln's victory and the south's secession;
1-B:7. Explain the course and consequences of the civil war and how it divided people in the United States, to include:
1-B:7.a. Contributions and significance of key figures (e.g., Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee, William Tecumseh Sherman, Ulysses S. Grant);
1-B:7.b. Major turning points in the civil war, including Gettysburg; unique nature of the civil war (e.g., impact of Americans fighting Americans, high casualties caused by disease and type of warfare, widespread destruction of American property);
1-B:7.c. Role of African Americans; purpose and effect of the emancipation proclamation; and
1-B:8. Analyze the character and lasting consequences of reconstruction, to include:
1-B:8.a. Reconstruction plans; impact of Lincoln's assassination and the impeachment of Andrew Johnson;
1-B:8.b. Attempts to protect the rights and enhance the opportunities for freedmen by the 13th, 14th and 15th amendments to the United States constitution;
1-B:8.c. Post-civil war segregation policies and their resulting impact on racial issues in the United States.
1-C: World: compare and contrast major historical eras, events and figures from ancient civilizations to the age of exploration:
1-C:2. Compare and contrast the influence of European countries (e.g., England, France, Holland) on the development of colonies in the new world; and
NM.II: Geography: Students understand how physical, natural, and cultural processes influence where people live, the ways in which people live, and how societies interact with one another and their environments. Students will
2-A: Analyze and evaluate the characteristics and purposes of geographic tools, knowledge, skills and perspectives and apply them to explain the past, present and future in terms of patterns, events and issues:
2-A:1. Describe patterns and processes of migration and diffusion; and
2-A:2. Provide a historic overview of patterns of population expansion into the west by the many diverse groups of people (e.g., Native Americans, European Americans and others) to include movement into the southwest along established settlement, trade and rail routes.
2-D: Explain how physical processes shape the earth's surface patterns and biosystems:
2-D:1. Explain how human activities and physical processes influence change in ecosystems.
2-E: Explain how economic, political, cultural and social processes interact to shape patterns of human populations and their interdependence, cooperation and conflict:
2-E:1. Explain and describe how movement of people impacted and shaped western settlement.
2-F: Understand the effects of interactions between human and natural systems in terms of changes in meaning, use, distribution and relative importance of resources
2-F:1. Describe the differing viewpoints that individuals and groups have with respect to the use of resources.
NM.III: Civics and Government: Students understand the ideals, rights, and responsibilities of citizenship and understand the content and history of the founding documents of the United States with particular emphasis on the United States and New Mexico constitutions and how governments function at local, state, tribal, and national levels. Students will:
3-A: Demonstrate understanding of the structure, functions and powers of government (local, state, tribal and national):
3-A:1. Explain the structure and functions of the national government as expressed in the United States constitution, and explain the powers granted to the three branches of government and those reserved to the people, states and tribes, to include:
3-A:1.a. The federal system (dividing sovereignty between the states and the federal government and their supporting bureaucracies);
3-A:1.d. Constitution designed to secure our liberty by both empowering and limiting central government;
3-A:1.e. Struggles over the creation of the Bill of Rights and its ratification;
3-A:2. Identify and describe a citizen's fundamental constitutional rights, to include:
3-A:2.a. Freedom of religion, expression, assembly and press;
3-A:2.b. Right to a fair trial;
3-A:2.c. Equal protection and due process;
3-B: Explain the significance of symbols, icons, songs, traditions and leaders of New Mexico and the United States that exemplify ideals and provide continuity and a sense of unity:
3-B:2. Explain the importance of point of view and its relationship to freedom of speech and press.
3-C: Compare political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American revolution and the United States government:
3-C:1. Describe political philosophies and concepts of government that became the foundation for the American revolution and the United States government, to include:
3-C:1.a. Ideas of the nature of government and rights of the individuals expressed in the declaration of independence with its roots in English philosophers (e.g., John Locke);
3-C:1.b. Concept of limited government and the rule of law established in the Magna Carta and the English bill of rights;
3-C:1.c. Social covenant established in the Mayflower compact;
3-D: Explain how individuals have rights and responsibilities as members of social groups, families, schools, communities, states, tribes and countries:
3-D:1. Explain basic law-making processes and how the design of the United States constitution provides numerous opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process and to monitor and influence government (e.g., elections, political parties, interest groups); and
NM.IV: Economics: Students understand basic economic principles and use economic reasoning skills to analyze the impact of economic systems (including the market economy) on individuals, families, businesses, communities, and governments. Students will:
4-A: Explain and describe how individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions, are influenced by incentives (economic as well as intrinsic) and the availability and use of scarce resources, and that their choices involve costs and varying ways of allocating:
4-A:1. Explain and provide examples of economic goals;
4-A:2. Analyze the full costs and benefits of alternative uses of resources that will lead to productive use of resources today and in the future; and
4-A:3. Explain that tension between individuals, groups and countries is often based upon differential access to resources.
4-B: Explain how economic systems impact the way individuals, households, businesses, governments and societies make decisions about resources and the production and distribution of goods and services:
4-B:1. Describe the relationships among supply, demand and price and their roles in the United States market system;
4-B:2. Identify how fundamental characteristics of the United States' economic system influence economic decision making (e.g., private property, profits, competition) at local, state, tribal and national levels;
4-B:3. Explain changing economic activities in the United States and New Mexico and the role of technology in those changes;
4-B:5. Describe the use of money over time (e.g., college funds beginning in elementary years, saving accounts, 401K accounts).
4-C: Describe the patterns of trade and exchange in early societies and civilizations and explore the extent of their continuation in today's world:
4-C:1. Explain how specialization leads to interdependence and describe ways most Americans depend on people in other households, communities and nations for some of the goods they consume;
4-C:2. Understand the interdependencies between the economies of New Mexico, the United States and the world;
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