New York State Learning Standards and Core Curriculum
NY.RH.5-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies
Craft and Structure
RH.5-8.4. Determine the meanings of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
RH.5-8.5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
RH.5-8.10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 5-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
NY.8P. Grade 8: Social Studies Practices
8P.A. Gathering, Interpreting, and Using Evidence
8P.A.1. Define and frame questions about the United States and answer them by gathering, interpreting, and using evidence.
8P.B. Chronological Reasoning
8P.B.4. Identify, analyze, and evaluate the relationship between multiple causes and effects.
8P.B.5. Distinguish between long-term and immediate causes and effects of an event from current events or history.
NY.8. History of the United States and New York State II
8.1. RECONSTRUCTION: Regional tensions following the Civil War complicated efforts to heal the nation and to redefine the status of African Americans. (Standards: 1, 4, 5; Themes: MOV, SOC, CIV, ECO)
8.1a. Different approaches toward and policies for Reconstruction highlight the challenges faced in reunifying the nation.
8.1a.1. Students will compare and contrast the differences between Reconstruction under Lincoln’s plan, Johnson’s plan, and congressional (Radical) Reconstruction.
8.1b. Freed African Americans created new lives for themselves in the absence of slavery. Constitutional amendments and federal legislation sought to expand the rights and protect the citizenship of African Americans.
8.1b.2. Students will examine the Freedmen’s Bureau’s purpose, successes, and the extent of its success.
8.1b.5. Students will examine the rise of African Americans in government.
8.1c. Federal initiatives begun during Reconstruction were challenged on many levels, leading to negative impacts on the lives of African Americans.
8.1c.1. Students will explore methods used by Southern state governments to affect the lives of African Americans, including the passage of Black Codes, poll taxes, and Jim Crow laws.
8.1c.3. Students will examine the ways in which the federal government failed to follow up on its promises to freed African Americans.