DE.1. Nature and Application of Science and Technology
1.1. Understandings and Abilities of Scientific Inquiry
Enduring Understanding: Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically-oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations, connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying the explanation.
1.1.F. Understand that: Scientific habits of mind and other sources of knowledge and skills are essential to scientific inquiry. Habits of mind include tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, openness to new ideas, and objectivity. Other knowledge and skills include mathematics, reading, writing, and technology.
1.1.F.1. Be able to: Use mathematics, reading, writing, and technology when conducting scientific inquiries. (Level: Important)
DE.3. Energy and Its Effects
3.1. The Forms and Sources of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).
3.1.B. Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and position (potential energy) of objects. Gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy are important forms of potential energy that contribute to the mechanical energy of objects. (Level: Essential)
3.1.D. Heat energy comes from the random motion of the particles in an object or substance. Temperature is a measure of the motion of the particles. The higher the temperature of the material, the greater the motion of the particles. (Level: Important)
3.2. Forces and the Transfer of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.
3.2.F. The addition or removal of heat energy from a material changes its temperature or its physical state. (Level: Important)
3.2.G. Heat energy is transported by conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat energy transfers from warmer substances to cooler substances until they reach the same temperature. (Level: Essential)
3.3. Energy Interacting With Materials; the Transformation and Conservation of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.
3.3.A. Energy can be transformed from one form into another. Energy transformations often take place while energy is being transferred to another object or substance. Energy transformations and energy transfers can be used to explain how energy flows through a physical system (e.g., photosynthesis, weathering, electrical circuits). (Level: Essential)
3.4. The Production, Consumption and Application of Energy
Enduring Understanding: People utilize a variety of resources to meet the basic and specific needs of life. Some of these resources cannot be replaced. Other resources can be replenished or exist in such vast quantities they are in no danger of becoming depleted. Often the energy stored in resources must be transformed into more useful forms and transported over great distances before it can be helpful to us.
3.4.A. Energy sources can be renewable or finite. Most energy used by industrial societies is derived from fossil fuel sources. Such sources are inherently limited on the Earth and are unevenly distributed geographically. Renewable energy sources vary in their availability and ease of use. (Level: Compact)
3.4.B. Technological advances throughout history have led to the discovery and use of different forms of energy, and to more efficient use of all forms of energy. These technological advances have led to increased demand for energy and have had both beneficial and detrimental effects on society. (Level: Compact)
3.4.C. Responsible use of energy requires consideration of energy availability, efficiency of its use, the environmental impact, and possible alternate sources. (Level: Compact)