WA.1. Systems (SYS)
6-8.SYS. Inputs, Outputs, Boundaries, and Flows: In prior grades students learned about the functioning of simple systems, including inputs and outputs. In grades 6-8 students learn how to use systems thinking to simplify and analyze complex situations. Systems concepts that students learn to apply at this level include choosing system boundaries, determining if a system is open or closed, measuring the flow of matter and energy through a system, and applying systems thinking to a complex societal issue that involves science and technology. These insights and abilities can help students see the connections between and among the domains of science and among science, technology, and society.
6-8.SYSA. Students know that any system may be thought of as containing subsystems and as being a subsystem of a larger system.
6-8.SYSA.1. Students are expected, to given a system, identify subsystems and a larger encompassing system (e.g., the heart is a system made up of tissues and cells, and is part of the larger circulatory system).
6-8.SYSB. Students know that the boundaries of a system can be drawn differently depending on the features of the system being investigated, the size of the system, and the purpose of the investigation.
6-8.SYSB.1. Students are expected to explain how the boundaries of a system can be drawn to fit the purpose of the study (e.g., to study how insect populations change, a system might be a forest, a meadow in the forest, or a single tree).
6-8.SYSC. Students know that the output of one system can become the input of another system.
6-8.SYSC.1. Students are expected to give an example of how output of matter or energy from a system can become input for another system (e.g., household waste goes to a landfill).
6-8.SYSD. Students know that in an open system, matter flows into and out of the system. In a closed system, energy may flow into or out of the system, but matter stays within the system.
6-8.SYSD.1. Students are expected, to given a description of a system, analyze and defend whether it is open or closed.
6-8.SYSE. Students know that if the input of matter or energy is the same as the output, then the amount of matter or energy in the system won't change; but if the input is more or less than the output, then the amount of matter or energy in the system will change.
6-8.SYSE.1. Students are expected to measure the flow of matter into and out of an open system and predict how the system is likely to change (e.g., a bottle of water with a hole in the bottom, an ecosystem, an electric circuit).
WA.4. Life Science
LS1. Structure and Function of Living Organisms
6-8.LS1. From Cells to Organisms: In prior grades students learned how structures in the body work together to respond to internal and external needs. In grades 6-8 students learn that all living systems are composed of cells which make up tissues, organs, and organ systems. At each level of organization, the structures enable specific functions required by the organism. Lifestyle choices and environmental conditions can affect parts of the human body, which may affect the health of the body as a whole. Understanding how organisms operate as systems helps students understand the commonalities among life forms, provides an introduction to further study of biology, and offers scientific insights into the ways that personal choices may affect health.
6-8.LS1D. Students know that both plant and animal cells must carry on life functions, so they have parts in common, such as nuclei, cytoplasm, cell membranes, and mitochondria. But plants have specialized cell parts, such as chloroplasts for photosynthesis and cell walls, which provide plants their overall structure.
6-8.LS1D.1. Students are expected to use labeled diagrams or models to illustrate similarities and differences between plant and animal cell structures and describe their functions (e.g., both have nuclei, cytoplasm, cell membranes, and mitochondria, while only plants have chloroplasts and cell walls).
6-8.LS2. Flow of Energy Through Ecosystems: In prior grades students learned how ecosystems change and how these changes affect the capacity of an ecosystem to support populations. In grades 6-8 students learn to apply key concepts about ecosystems to understand the interactions among organisms and the nonliving environment. Essential concepts include the process of photosynthesis used by plants to transform the energy of sunlight into food energy, which is used by other organisms, and possible causes of environmental change. Students also learn to investigate environmental issues and to use science to evaluate different solutions to problems. Knowledge of how energy flows through ecosystems is a critical aspect of students' understanding of how energy sustains life on the planet, including human life.
6-8.LS2B. Students know that energy flows through an ecosystem from producers (plants) to consumers to decomposers. These relationships can be shown for specific populations in a food web.
6-8.LS2B.1. Students are expected to analyze the flow of energy in a local ecosystem, and draw a labeled food web showing the relationships among all of the ecosystem's plant and animal populations.
6-8.LS2C. Students know that the major source of energy for ecosystems on Earth's surface is sunlight. Producers transform the energy of sunlight into the chemical energy of food through photosynthesis. This food energy is used by plants, and all other organisms to carry on life processes. Nearly all organisms on the surface of Earth depend on this energy source.
6-8.LS2C.1. Students are expected to explain how energy from the Sun is transformed through photosynthesis to produce chemical energy in food.
6-8.LS2C.2. Students are expected to explain that producers are the only organisms that make their own food. Animals cannot survive without producers because animals get food by eating producers or other animals that eat producers.