OH.1. Earth and Space Sciences: Students demonstrate an understanding about how Earth systems and processes interact in the geosphere resulting in the habitability of Earth. This includes demonstrating an understanding of the composition of the universe, the solar system and Earth. In addition, it includes understanding the properties and the interconnected nature of Earth's systems, processes that shape Earth and Earth's history. Students also demonstrate an understanding of how the concepts and principles of energy, matter, motion and forces explain Earth systems, the solar system and the universe. Finally, they grasp an understanding of the historical perspectives, scientific approaches and emerging scientific issues associated with Earth and space sciences.
1.10. Grade Level Indicator: Earth Systems: Explain that most major geological events (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hot spots and mountain building) result from plate motion.
1.13. Grade Level Indicator: Earth Systems: Describe how landforms are created through a combination of destructive (e.g., weathering and erosion) and constructive processes (e.g., crustal deformation, volcanic eruptions and deposition of sediment).
1.15. Grade Level Indicator: Earth Systems: Illustrate how the three primary types of plate boundaries (transform, divergent and convergent) cause different landforms (e.g., mountains, volcanoes and ocean trenches).
1.E. Describe the processes that contribute to the continuous changing of Earth's surface (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, erosion, mountain building and lithospheric plate movements).
OH.5. Scientific Inquiry: Students develop scientific habits of mind as they use the processes of scientific inquiry to ask valid questions and to gather and analyze information. They understand how to develop hypotheses and make predictions. They are able to reflect on scientific practices as they develop plans of action to create and evaluate a variety of conclusions. Students are also able to demonstrate the ability to communicate their findings to others.
5.3. Grade Level Indicator: Doing Scientific Inquiry: Read, construct and interpret data in various forms produced by self and others in both written and oral form (e.g., tables, charts, maps, graphs, diagrams and symbols).
5.B. Analyze and interpret data from scientific investigations using appropriate mathematical skills in order to draw valid conclusions.
OH.6. Scientific Ways of Knowing: Students realize that the current body of scientific knowledge must be based on evidence, be predictive, logical, subject to modification and limited to the natural world. This includes demonstrating an understanding that scientific knowledge grows and advances as new evidence is discovered to support or modify existing theories, as well as to encourage the development of new theories. Students are able to reflect on ethical scientific practices and demonstrate an understanding of how the current body of scientific knowledge reflects the historical and cultural contributions of women and men who provide us with a more reliable and comprehensive understanding of the natural world.
6.2. Grade Level Indicator: Ethical Practices: Explain why it is important to examine data objectively and not let bias affect observations.
6.A. Use skills of scientific inquiry processes (e.g., hypothesis, record keeping, description and explanation).