ME.D. The Physical Setting: Students understand the universal nature of matter, energy, force, and motion and identify how these relationships are exhibited in Earth Systems, in the solar system, and throughout the universe.
D.2. Earth: Students describe the various cycles, physical and biological forces and processes, position in space, energy transformations, and human actions that affect the short- term and long-term changes to the Earth.
D.2.b. Describe Earth Systems - biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and lithosphere - and cycles and interactions within them (including water moving among and between them, rocks forming and transforming, and weather formation).
D.3. Matter and Energy: Students describe physical and chemical properties of matter, interactions and changes in matter, and transfer of energy through matter.
D.3.k. Describe the properties of solar radiation and its interaction with objects on Earth.