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Understanding Weather Eighth Grade Science
Technology in our world Seventh Grade Science
Modern Genetics Eighth Grade Science
Energy: Forms and Changes Seventh Grade Science
Earthquakes Seventh Grade Science
How Does the Earth's Surface Change? Third Grade Science

Kentucky Standards for Seventh Grade Science

KY.AE. Academic Expectation

AE.1. Students are able to use basic communication and mathematics skills for purposes and situations they will encounter throughout their lives.

1.10. Students organize information through development and use of classification rules and systems.
1.11. Students write using appropriate forms, conventions, and styles to communicate ideas and information to different audiences for different purposes.
1.13. Students make sense of ideas and communicate ideas with the visual arts.
1.16. Students use computers and other kinds of technology to collect, organize, and communicate information and ideas.
1.3. Students make sense of the various things they observe.
1.4. Students make sense of the various messages to which they listen.
1.5-1.9. Students use mathematical ideas and procedures to communicate, reason, and solve problems.

AE.2. Students shall develop their abilities to apply core concepts and principles from mathematics, the sciences, the arts, the humanities, social studies, practical living studies, and vocational studies to what they will encounter throughout their lives.

2.1. Science: Students understand scientific ways of thinking and working and use those methods to solve real-life problems.
2.2. Science: Students identify, analyze, and use patterns such as cycles and trends to understand past and present events and predict possible future events.
2.3. Science: Students identify and analyze systems and the ways their components work together or affect each other.
2.4. Science: Students use the concept of scale and scientific models to explain the organization and functioning of living and nonliving things and predict other characteristics that might be observed.
2.5. Science: Students understand that under certain conditions nature tends to remain the same or move toward a balance.
2.6. Science: Students understand how living and nonliving things change over time and the factors that influence the changes.

KY.CC. Core Content for Assessment v.4.1

SC-07-1.1. Structure and Transformation of Matter: During the middle years, physical and chemical changes in matter are observed, and students begin to relate these changes to the smaller constituents of matter - namely, atoms and molecules.

SC-07-1.1.1. Physical Science: Students will classify substances according to their chemical/reactive properties; infer real life applications for substances based on chemical/reactive properties.
SC-07-1.1.2. Physical Science: Students will classify elements and compounds according to their properties; compare properties of different combinations of elements.

SC-07-1.2. Motion and Forces: At the middle level, qualitative descriptions of the relationship between forces and motion will provide the foundation for quantitative applications of Newton's Laws.

SC-07-1.2.1. Physical Science: Students will explain the cause and effect relationship between simple observable motion and unbalanced forces.

SC-07-2.3. The Earth and the Universe: The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on earth in many ways. At the middle level, students investigate how these changes occur.

SC-07-2.3.1. Earth/Space Science: Students will make inferences and predictions related to changes in the Earth's surface or atmosphere based on data/evidence.
SC-07-2.3.2. Earth/Space Science: Students will explain the layers of the Earth and their interactions.

SC-07-3.4. Unity and Diversity: In middle school, students begin to compare, contrast and classify the microscopic features of organisms - the cells, as well as investigate reproduction as the essential process to the continuation of all species. Expected patterns of genetic traits are predicted. Distinctions are made between learned behaviors and inherited traits.

SC-07-3.4.1. Biological Science: Students will describe the role of genes/chromosomes in the passing of information from one generation to another (heredity); compare inherited and learned traits.
SC-07-3.4.2. Biological Science: Students will describe and compare sexual and asexual reproduction.

SC-07-3.5. Biological Change: At the middle school level, students study relationships among populations and ecosystems that contribute to the success or demise of a specific population or species. Students construct basic explanations that can account for the great diversity among organisms.

SC-07-3.5.1. Biological Science: Students will describe the usefulness of fossil information to make conclusions about past life forms and environmental conditions; explain the cause and effect relationship of the extinction of a species and environmental changes.

SC-07-4.6. Energy Transformations: Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe - from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in simple earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels).

SC-07-4.6.1. Unifying Concepts: Students will understand that Earth systems have sources of energy that are internal and external to the Earth. The Sun is the major external source of energy.
SC-07-4.6.2. Unifying Concepts: Students will describe the transfer and/or transformations of energy that occur in examples that involve several different forms of energy (e.g., heat, electrical, light, motion of objects and chemical); explain, qualitatively or quantitatively, that heat lost by hot object equals the heat gained by cold object.
SC-07-4.6.3. Students will describe and explain the effects of balanced and unbalanced forces on motion as found in real-life phenomena.
SC-07-4.6.4. Unifying Concepts: Students will describe or represent the flow of energy in ecosystems, using data to draw conclusions about the role of organisms in an ecosystem.

KY.CC.6-8.RST. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

6-8.RST.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

6-8.RST.7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
6-8.RST.9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.

KY.CC.6-8.WHST. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

6-8.WHST.7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.

Text Types and Purposes

6-8.WHST.2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
6-8.WHST.2.d. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to inform about or explain the topic.
6-8.WHST.2.f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.

KY.CC.CCRA-W. College and Career Readiness Anchor Standards for Writing

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

CCRA-W.7. Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.

Text Types and Purposes

CCRA-W.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.

KY.PS. Program of Studies 2006

SC-7-BC. Big Idea: Biological Change (Biological Science) - The only thing certain is that everything changes. At the middle school level, students study relationships among populations and ecosystems that contribute to the success or demise of a specific population or species. Students construct basic explanations that can account for the great diversity among organisms. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.5, 2.6)

SC-7-BC-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate parasitic and symbiotic relationships among organisms
SC-7-BC-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use information from the fossil record to investigate changes in organisms and their environments to make inferences about past life forms and environmental conditions
SC-7-BC-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will compare the results from a variety of investigations (based on similar hypotheses) to identify differences between their outcomes/conclusions and propose reasonable explanations for those discrepancies
SC-7-BC-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that over time, some species have become so adapted to each other that neither could survive without the other.
SC-7-BC-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same, but if the differences are large it is important to try to figure out why. Keeping careful records is important to help investigate what might have caused the differences.

SC-7-ET. Big Idea: Energy Transformations (Unifying Concepts) - Energy transformations are inherent in almost every system in the universe - from tangible examples at the elementary level, such as heat production in simple Earth and physical systems to more abstract ideas beginning at middle school, such as those transformations involved in the growth, dying and decay of living systems. The use of models to illustrate the often invisible and abstract notions of energy transfer will aid in conceptualization, especially as students move from the macroscopic level of observation and evidence (primarily elementary school) to the microscopic interactions at the atomic level (middle and high school levels). (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

SC-7-ET-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate a variety of Earth systems that are powered by solar (e.g. water cycle, climate, carbon cycle) and/or geothermal (e.g. plate tectonics, volcanism) energy
SC-7-ET-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will model, explain and analyze the flow of energy in ecosystems and draw conclusions about the role of organisms in an ecosystem
SC-7-ET-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explain where energy comes from (and goes next) in a variety of real-world examples (e.g. burning, respiration, residential lighting, dry cell batteries) involving different forms of energy (e.g. heat, light, kinetic, chemical)
SC-7-ET-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will identify forms of energy that are transferred via waves
SC-7-ET-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will equate work done on an object with change in energy of the object
SC-7-ET-S-6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe the kinetic molecular theory of matter
SC-7-ET-S-7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will experiment with heat flow inside closed and open systems to explore the concept of thermal equilibrium
SC-7-ET-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that most of the energy that powers the Earth's systems comes from the sun. Energy from inside the Earth, however, is responsible for some important phenomena (volcanism, plate tectonics).
SC-7-ET-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that all energy must have a source and may change forms or be transferred in a wide variety of ways, including via waves.
SC-7-ET-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that thermal energy and motion are inseparable when viewed at the molecular level.
SC-7-ET-U-6. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that systems tend to change until they become stable and remain that way unless conditions change.

SC-7-EU. Big Idea: The Earth and the Universe (Earth/Space Science) - The Earth system is in a constant state of change. These changes affect life on Earth in many ways. Development of conceptual understandings about processes that shape the Earth begin at the elementary level with understanding what Earth materials are and that change occurs. At the middle level, students investigate how these changes occur. An understanding of systems and their interacting components will enable students to evaluate supporting theories of Earth changes. The use of models and observance of patterns to explain common phenomena is essential to building a conceptual foundation and supporting ideas with evidence at all levels. In middle school, students begin to look beyond what can be directly observed as they explore the Earth-sun-moon system, as well as the rest of our solar system, employing the concept of scale within their models. Patterns play an important role as students seek to develop a conceptual understanding of gravity in their world and in the universe. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

SC-7-EU-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research how the laws of motion have been (and are still) used to make predictions about the movement of planets and satellites
SC-7-EU-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate the structure of the galaxy and the Earth's place within it
SC-7-EU-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will analyze the evidence used to infer the composition of the Earth's interior and evaluate the models based upon that evidence
SC-7-EU-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will model the layers of the Earth, explain interactions between them and describe potential results of those interactions
SC-7-EU-S-6. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate the forces and processes that change Earth's surface or atmosphere and analyze data to generate predictions of their effects
SC-7-EU-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that regular and predictable movement is not limited to our solar system. New technologies, coupled with an understanding of the laws of motion, allow for the discovery of celestial bodies that cannot be directly observed.
SC-7-EU-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that our solar system is part of a larger collection of millions of stars (Milky Way Galaxy), any of which may be the center of its own system of orbiting planets.
SC-7-EU-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that gravitational interactions within the Earth, sun and moon system impact phenomena and organisms on the surface of the Earth.
SC-7-EU-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that models of the interior of the Earth have been constructed primarily from inferences based on limited data obtained during earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. These models are useful, but are open to revision or rejection as new information is obtained.
SC-7-EU-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the Earth's layers vary widely in their properties, and interactions between them can manifest themselves in ways that impact both the Earth and its organisms.
SC-7-EU-U-6. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that while some changes to the Earth occur without warning, many changes to the surface or atmosphere can be predicted from available data/evidence.

SC-7-I. Big Idea: Interdependence (Unifying Concepts) - It is not difficult for students to grasp the general notion that species depend on one another and on the environment for survival. But their awareness must be supported by knowledge of the kinds of relationships that exist among organisms, the kinds of physical conditions that organisms must cope with, the kinds of environments created by the interaction of organisms with one another and their physical surroundings, and the complexity of such systems. In middle school, students should be guided from specific examples of the interdependency of organisms to a more systematic view of the interactions that take place among organisms and their surroundings. Students growing understanding of systems in general will reinforce the concept of ecosystems. Stability and change in ecosystems can be considered in terms of variables such as population size, number and kinds of species, productivity, and the effect of human intervention. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

SC-7-I-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research and investigate environmental situations where small changes may have large impacts in both living and non-living components of systems (e.g., introduction of zebra mussels into the Kentucky river, planting kudzu to stabilize hillsides)
SC-7-I-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research and discuss environmental impacts of actions (human or non-human) which necessitate choosing between undesirable alternatives (e.g., losing crops to insects vs. applying toxic pesticides)
SC-7-I-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will design and conduct investigations of changes to abiotic and biotic factors in ecosystems, document and communicate observations, procedures, results and conclusions
SC-7-I-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that changes within an ecosystem may be caused by the interactions of many factors, both biotic and abiotic. Seemingly small changes can have significant consequences as their effects ripple through a community.

SC-7-MF. Big Idea: Motion and Forces (Physical Science) - Whether observing airplanes, baseballs, planets, or people, the motion of all bodies is governed by the same basic rules. At the middle level, qualitative descriptions of the relationship between forces and motion will provide the foundation for quantitative applications of Newton's Laws. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3)

SC-7-MF-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will use appropriate tools and technology (e.g., timer, meter stick, balance, spring scale) to investigate the position, speed and motion of objects
SC-7-MF-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will test the cause and effect relationship between straight-line motion and unbalanced forces
SC-7-MF-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate balanced and unbalanced forces and their effect on objects and their motion
SC-7-MF-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will make inferences and draw conclusions about the motion of objects, and predict changes in position and motion as related to the mass or force
SC-7-MF-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will calculate work as the product of force and distance moved in the direction of the force
SC-7-MF-S-7. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will investigate the properties of gravity and observe its effects on objects
SC-7-MF-S-8. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will distinguish between weight (as a function of gravity) and mass (matter content) of an object
SC-7-MF-S-9. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will explore the impact of technology on measurement by making measurements with tools of varying precision, comparing the results and predicting possible impacts that variation in measurements might have in real-life investigations
SC-7-MF-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that an object remains at rest or maintains a constant speed and direction of motion unless an unbalanced force acts on it (inertia).
SC-7-MF-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that forces acting against each other can be balanced, canceling each other out and having no net effect.
SC-7-MF-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that technology used to gather data enhances accuracy and allows scientists to analyze and quantify results of investigations.

SC-7-STM. Big Idea: Structure and Transformation of Matter (Physical Science) - A basic understanding of matter is essential to the conceptual development of other big ideas in science. During the middle years, physical and chemical changes in matter are observed, and students begin to relate these changes to the smaller constituents of matter - namely, atoms and molecules. The use of models (and an understanding of their scales and limitations) is an effective means of learning about the structure of matter. Looking for patterns in properties is also critical to comparing and explaining differences in matter. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.4, 2.5)

SC-7-STM-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will compare the physical and chemical properties of a variety of substances, including examples of solids, liquids and gases
SC-7-STM-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will distinguish between elements and compounds and classify them according to their properties
SC-7-STM-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will observe reactions between substances that produce new substances very different from the reactants
SC-7-STM-S-5. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will test factors that influence reaction rates
SC-7-STM-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that there are only 92 naturally occurring elements and all matter is made of some combination of them (compounds).
SC-7-STM-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that elements, as well as compounds, can be classified according to their similar properties, including how they react with each other and how they may be used. The patterns, which allow classification, can be used to infer or understand real life applications for those substances.
SC-7-STM-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that many factors influence reaction rates, such as temperature, acidity and concentration.
SC-7-STM-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that investigations are conducted for different reasons, including to explore new phenomena, to check on previous results, to test how well a theory predicts, and to compare different theories.

SC-7-UD. Big Idea: Unity and Diversity (Biological Science) - All matter is comprised of the same basic elements, goes through the same kinds of energy transformations, and uses the same kinds of forces to move. Living organisms are no exception. In middle school, students begin to compare, contrast, and classify the microscopic features of organisms - the cells, as well as investigate reproduction as the essential process to the continuation of all species. Expected patterns of genetic traits are predicted. Distinctions are made between learned behaviors and inherited traits. Emphasis at every level should be placed upon the understanding that while every living thing is composed of similar small constituents that combine in predictable ways, it is the subtle variations within these small building blocks that account for both the likenesses and differences in form and function that create the diversity of life. (Academic Expectations 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4)

SC-7-UD-S-1. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe and compare sexual and asexual reproduction, including advantages and disadvantages of each
SC-7-UD-S-2. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research and describe the role of genes/chromosomes in the passing of information from one generation to another (heredity)
SC-7-UD-S-3. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will describe the differences between learned and inherited behaviors and characteristics, and classify examples of each using tables, graphs or diagrams
SC-7-UD-S-4. Program of Studies: Skills and Concepts - Students will research variations within species that result from sexual reproduction
SC-7-UD-U-1. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that specialized structures called genes are located in the chromosomes of each living cell. These structures have the task of passing on characteristics that make offspring resemble their parents (heredity).
SC-7-UD-U-2. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that inherited traits of an offspring come directly from the genes of the parent, while learned traits are acquired after birth through interactions with the offspring's surroundings
SC-7-UD-U-3. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that asexual reproduction involves only the passing on of one parent's genes, resulting in offspring with genes identical to those of the parent. Sexual reproduction requires the combination of genes from male and female sex cells, creating offspring with a blend of traits.
SC-7-UD-U-4. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that sexual reproduction creates variations among offspring, gradually contributing to a wide variety of life.
SC-7-UD-U-5. Program of Studies: Understandings - Students will understand that the observable differences among humans are minor compared to their internal similarity, as evidenced by the ability of people from all over the world to physically mix through reproduction, blood transfusions and organ transplants.

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