California Content Standards
CA.7. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times
7.7. Students compare and contrast the geographic, political, economic, religious, and social structures of the Meso-American and Andean civilizations.
7.7.1. Study the locations, landforms, and climates of Mexico, Central America, and South America and their effects on Mayan, Aztec, and Incan economies, trade, and development of urban societies.
7.7.2. Study the roles of people in each society, including class structures, family life, war-fare, religious beliefs and practices, and slavery.
7.7.3. Explain how and where each empire arose and how the Aztec and Incan empires were defeated by the Spanish.
7.7.5. Describe the Meso-American achievements in astronomy and mathematics, including the development of the calendar and the Meso-American knowledge of seasonal changes to the civilizations' agricultural systems.
CA.6-8.HSSA. Historical and Social Sciences Analysis Skills: The intellectual skills noted below are to be learned through, and applied to, the content standards for grades six through eight. They are to be assessed only in conjunction with the content standards in grades six through eight. In addition to the standards for grades six through eight, students demonstrate the following intellectual reasoning, reflection, and research skills.
6-8.CST. Chronological and Spatial Thinking
6-8.CST.1. Students explain how major events are related to one another in time.
6-8.REP. Research, Evidence, and Point
6-8.REP.1. Students frame questions that can be answered by historical study and research.
6-8.HI. Historical Interpretation
6-8.HI.1. Students explain the central issues and problems from the past, placing people and events in a matrix of time and place.
6-8.HI.2. Students understand and distinguish cause, effect, sequence, and correlation in historical events, including the long-and short-term causal relations.
6-8.HI.3. Students explain the sources of historical continuity and how the combination of ideas and events explains the emergence of new patterns.
6-8.HI.4. Students recognize the role of chance, oversight, and error in history.
6-8.HI.5. Students recognize that interpretations of history are subject to change as new information is uncovered.
CA.CC.RH.6-8. Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies
Craft and Structure
RH.6-8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary specific to domains related to history/social studies.
RH.6-8.5. Describe how a text presents information (e.g., sequentially, comparatively, causally).
Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity
RH.6-8.10. By the end of grade 8, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 6–8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.