Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the likelihood of a particular event or outcome occurring. It is used to quantify uncertainty and make informed decisions in various fields such as statistics, science, finance, and gaming.

There are several fundamental concepts in probability:

**Sample Space:**The set of all possible outcomes of an experiment. It is denoted by S.**Event:**A subset of the sample space, representing a specific outcome or a combination of outcomes.**Probability of an Event:**The likelihood of an event occurring, usually denoted by P(E), where E is the event.**Probability Scale:**Probabilities range from 0 (impossible event) to 1 (certain event).

Probability can be calculated using different methods depending on the nature of the experiment:

**Classical Probability:**Involves equally likely outcomes, and the probability of an event E is calculated as P(E) = (Number of favorable outcomes) / (Total number of outcomes).**Empirical Probability:**Based on observed data or experimental results. The probability of an event is estimated as the frequency of occurrence.**Conditional Probability:**The probability of an event given that another event has occurred. It is denoted by P(E | F), where E and F are events.**Probability Rules:**Include the addition rule, multiplication rule, and complement rule for calculating probabilities of compound events.

Probability has numerous real-world applications, including:

- Weather forecasting
- Insurance and risk assessment
- Gambling and games of chance
- Quality control and reliability analysis
- Medical diagnosis and treatment outcomes

Understanding probability helps in making rational decisions and predicting outcomes in uncertain situations.

Study GuideProbability Activity LessonProbability Worksheet/Answer key

Probability Worksheet/Answer key

Probability Worksheet/Answer key

Probability Worksheet/Answer keyChance Worksheet/Answer keyChance Worksheet/Answer keyChance Worksheet/Answer keyProbability Prize Wheel Worksheet/Answer keyProbability Letter Cube

Data Analysis and Probability (NCTM)

Understand and apply basic concepts of probability.

Describe events as likely or unlikely and discuss the degree of likelihood using such words as certain, equally likely, and impossible.

Understand that the measure of the likelihood of an event can be represented by a number from 0 to 1.