Number and Operations (NCTM)
Compute fluently and make reasonable estimates.
Develop fluency in adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividing whole numbers.
Use mathematical models to represent and understand quantitative relationships.
Model problem situations with objects and use representations such as graphs, tables, and equations to draw conclusions.
Grade 5 Curriculum Focal Points (NCTM)
Number and Operations and Algebra: Developing an understanding of and fluency with division of whole numbers
Students apply their understanding of models for division, place value, properties, and the relationship of division to multiplication as they develop, discuss, and use efficient, accurate, and generalizable procedures to find quotients involving multi-digit dividends. They select appropriate methods and apply them accurately to estimate quotients or calculate them mentally, depending on the context and numbers involved. They develop fluency with efficient procedures, including the standard algorithm, for dividing whole numbers, understand why the procedures work (on the basis of place value and properties of operations), and use them to solve problems. They consider the context in which a problem is situated to select the most useful form of the quotient for the solution, and they interpret it appropriately.
Connections to the Grade 5 Focal Points (NCTM)
Number and Operations: Building on their work in grade 4, students extend their understanding of place value to numbers through millions and millionths in various contexts. They apply what they know about multiplication of whole numbers to larger numbers. Students also explore contexts that they can describe with negative numbers (e.g., situations of owing money or measuring elevations above and below sea level).