Virginia Standards of Learning
VA.SS.USI. United States History to 1865
Civil War: 1861 to 1865
USI.9. The student will apply social science skills to understand the causes, major events, and effects of the Civil War by:
USI.9.d. Describing the roles of Abraham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, and Frederick Douglass in events leading to and during the war.
VA.SS.USII. United States History: 1865 to the Present
Reconstruction: 1865 to 1877
USII.3. The student will apply social science skills to understand the effects of Reconstruction on American life by:
USII.3.c. Describing the legacies of Abraham Lincoln, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
Reshaping the Nation and the Emergence of Modern America: 1877 to the Early 1900s
USII.4. The student will apply social science skills to understand how life changed after the Civil War by:
USII.4.d. Explaining the impact of new inventions, the rise of big business, the growth of industry, and the changes to life on American farms in response to industrialization.
Turmoil and Change: 1890s to 1945
USII.6. The student will apply social science skills to understand the social, economic, and technological changes of the early twentieth century by:
USII.6.a. Explaining how developments in factory and labor productivity, transportation (including the use of the automobile), communication, and rural electrification changed American life and standard of living.
VA.SS.WG. World Geography
WG.1. The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by:
WG.1.b. Using geographic information to determine patterns and trends to understand world regions.
WG.1.f. Explaining indirect cause-and-effect relationships to understand geospatial connections.
WG.3. The student will apply the concept of a region by:
WG.3.a. Explaining how characteristics of regions have led to regional labels.
WG.3.b. Describing how regional landscapes reflect the physical environment and the cultural characteristics of their inhabitants.
WG.3.c. Analyzing how cultural characteristics, including the world’s major languages, ethnicities, and religions, link or divide regions.
WG.4. The student will apply social science skills to evaluate the significance of natural, human, and capital resources by:
WG.4.b. Showing the influence of resources on patterns of economic activity and land use.
WG.5. The student will analyze the characteristics of the regions of the United States and Canada by:
WG.5.b. Describing major physical and environmental features.
WG.17. The student will apply social science skills to analyze the impact of globalization by:
WG.17.b. Describing ways that economic and social interactions change over time.
VA.SS.VUS. Virginia and United States History
VUS.1. The student will demonstrate skills for historical thinking, geographical analysis, economic decision making, and responsible citizenship by:
VUS.1.e. Comparing and contrasting historical, cultural, economic, and political perspectives in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.f. Explaining how indirect cause-and-effect relationships impact people, places, and events in Virginia and United States history.
VUS.1.g. Analyzing multiple connections across time and place.
VUS.1.h. Using a decision-making model to analyze and explain the incentives for and consequences of a specific choice made.
Civil War and Reconstruction
VUS.7. The student will apply social science skills to understand the Civil War and Reconstruction eras and their significance as major turning points in American history by:
VUS.7.a. Describing major events and the roles of key leaders of the Civil War era, with emphasis on Jefferson Davis, Ulysses S. Grant, Robert E. Lee, and Frederick Douglass.
VUS.7.b. Evaluating and explaining the significance and development of Abraham Lincoln’s leadership and political statements, including the significance of the Emancipation Proclamation and the principles outlined in the Gettysburg Address.
VUS.8. The student will apply social science skills to understand how the nation grew and changed from the end of Reconstruction through the early twentieth century by:
VUS.8.b. Analyzing the factors that transformed the American economy from agrarian to industrial and explaining how major inventions transformed life in the United States, including the emergence of leisure activities.