Minnesota Academic Standards for High School Earth Science

Earth`s ClimateWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Earth's CrustFreeWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Earth's SurfaceWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Maps as Models of the EarthWorksheets: 4Vocabulary Sets: 3
Minerals IIWorksheets: 4Vocabulary Sets: 2
Our Solar SystemWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Rocks IWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Rocks IIWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
The Rock CycleWorksheets: 4Vocabulary Sets: 3
Weathering and ErosionWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3

MN.9.1. The Nature of Science and Engineering

9.1.1. The Practice of Science

9.1.1.1. The student will understand that science is a way of knowing about the natural world that is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review.
9.1.1.1.3. Explain how the traditions and norms of science define the bounds of professional scientific practice and reveal instances of scientific error or misconduct.
9.1.1.1.7. Explain how scientific and technological innovations - as well as new evidence - can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.
Introduction to cellsAll living things are made from one or more cells. The nucleus is the control center of the cell. It houses the nucleolus and genetic material (chromatin) used for directing cell functions. Nuclear pores allow materials to pass in and out of the nucleus. The nuclear envelope is a membrane which surrounds and protects the nucleus. The nucleolus produces ribosomes. Ribosomes are factories that produce proteins needed by the cell. Lysosomes contain chemicals (enzymes) that break down and recycle harmful materials. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :4

9.1.3. Interactions Among Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Society

9.1.3.1. The student will understand that natural and designed systems are made up of components that act within a system and interact with other systems.
9.1.3.1.3. Describe how positive and/or negative feedback occur in systems.
Human biology IBronchi - large tubules that branch from the trachea to carry air in and out of the lungs. Capillaries - the smallest blood vessels found in very rich networks between arteries and veins; the site where many substances are exchanged. Antibodies - a specific protein produced by B lymphocytes that attaches to an antigen and leads to its removal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7
Human biology IIAntigen - a molecule that the immune system recognizes as part of the body or foreign to the body. Appendicular skeleton - a part of the skeleton composed of 126 bones found in the flexible regions of the body, including shoulders, hips and limbs. Axial skeleton - the central, anchoring part of the bony skeleton that consists of the skull, backbone (vertebrae) and rib cage. Bile - a chemical produced by the liver and stored temporarily in the gall bladder that is released into the intestines to help in fat digestion. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7
9.1.3.3. The student will understand that science and engineering operate in the context of society and both influence and are influenced by this context.
9.1.3.3.1. Describe how values and constraints affect science and engineering.
9.1.3.4. The student will understand that science, technology, engineering and mathematics rely on each other to enhance knowledge and understanding.
9.1.3.4.2. Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, computers and measurement instruments in science and engineering contexts.
The science of biologyThe processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Read more...iWorksheets :3
The Science of ChemistryWhich substance is a binary compound - ammonia, argon, glucose or glycerol? Which molecule is polar and contains polar bonds? Which atom will form an ionic bond with a Br atom - N, Li, O or C? By which process is petroleum separated into its components according to their different boiling points? Read more...iWorksheets :3
Lab InvestigationsWorksheets :3
Lab investigationsWorksheets :3
9.1.3.4.5. Demonstrate how unit consistency and dimensional analysis can guide the calculation of quantitative solutions and verification of results.
ThermodynamicsWorksheets :4

MN.9.2. Physical Science

9.2.1. Matter

9.2.1.1. The student will understand that the structure of the atom determines chemical properties of elements.
9.2.1.1.1. Describe the relative charges, masses, and locations of the protons, neutrons, and electrons in an atom of an element.
MagnetismWorksheets :3
9.2.1.1.3. Explain the arrangement of the elements on the Periodic Table, including the relationships among elements in a given column or row.
Elements - Set IWorksheets :3
Elements - Set IIWorksheets :3
9.2.1.1.4. Explain that isotopes of an element have different numbers of neutrons and that some are unstable and emit particles and/or radiation.
9.2.1.2. The student will understand that chemical reactions involve the rearrangement of atoms as chemical bonds are broken and formed through transferring or sharing of electrons and the absorption or release of energy.
9.2.1.2.1. Describe the role of valence electrons in the formation of chemical bonds.
9.2.1.2.3. Describe a chemical reaction using words and symbolic equations.
Chemical EquationsWorksheets :3
Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :6Vocabulary :3
9.2.1.2.4. Relate exothermic and endothermic chemical reactions to temperature and energy changes.

9.2.2. Motion

9.2.2.2. The student will understand that forces and object mass determine the motion of an object.
9.2.2.2.1. Recognize that the inertia of an object causes it to resist changes in motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
Forces - Set IIWorksheets :3
9.2.2.2.2. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
Forces - Set IIWorksheets :3
MechanicsWorksheets :3

9.2.3. Energy

9.2.3.2. The student will understand that energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved.
9.2.3.2.2. Calculate and explain the energy, work and power involved in energy transfers in a mechanical system.
Work and EnergyWorksheets :4
9.2.3.2.3. Describe how energy is transferred through sound waves and how pitch and loudness are related to wave properties of amplitude and wavelength.
SoundWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.4. Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
Modern ElectronicsWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.5. Describe how an electric current produces a magnetic force, and how this interaction is used in motors and electromagnets to produce mechanical energy.
ElectromagnetismThe production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.6. Use the idea that small amounts of matter are transformed into large amounts of energy in nuclear reactions to compare fission and fusion in terms of beginning and end products and the amount of energy released.
Nuclear ChemistryWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.7. Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
MagnetismWorksheets :3

MN.9.3. Earth and Space Science

9.3.1. Earth Structure and Processes

9.3.1.1. The student will understand that the relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.1.1. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries.
9.3.1.1.3. Describe how the pattern of magnetic reversals and rock ages on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge provides evidence of sea-floor spreading.
9.3.1.1.4. Explain how the rock record provides evidence for plate movement.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3
9.3.1.1.5. Describe how experimental and observational evidence led to the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.3. The student will understand that by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, geologic events can be inferred and geologic time can be estimated.
9.3.1.3.1. Use relative dating techniques to explain how the structure of the Earth and life on Earth has changed over short and long periods of time.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3

9.3.2. Interdependence Within the Earth System

9.3.2.1. The student will understand that the Earth system has internal and external sources of energy, which produce heat and drive the motion of material in the oceans, atmosphere and solid earth.
9.3.2.1.2. Explain how the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives the convection circulation in the mantle to move tectonic plates.
9.3.2.2. The student will understand that global climate is determined by distribution of energy from the sun at the Earth's surface.
9.3.2.2.1. Explain how Earth's rotation, ocean currents, configuration of mountain ranges, and composition of the atmosphere influence the absorption and distribution of energy, which contributes to global climatic patterns.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.3.2.2.2. Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today.
9.3.2.3. The student will understand that material in the Earth system cycles through different reservoirs, and is powered by the Earth's sources of energy.
9.3.2.3.1. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Weather IWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3

9.3.3. The Universe

9.3.3.2. The student will understand that the solar system, sun, and Earth formed over billions of years.
9.3.3.2.1. Describe how the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
9.3.3.2.2.. Explain how the Earth evolved into its present habitable form through interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms.
9.3.3.3. The student will understand that the big bang theory states that the universe expanded from a hot, dense chaotic mass, after which elements formed and clumped together to eventually form stars and galaxies.
9.3.3.3.1. Explain how evidence is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
9.3.3.3.2. Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.

9.3.4. Human Interactions with the Earth System

9.3.4.1. The student will understand that people consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems.
9.3.4.1.1. Analyze the benefits, costs, risks and tradeoffs associated with natural hazards, including the selection of land use and engineering mitigation.
Weather IIWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9.3.4.1.2. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The AtmosphereWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MN.9.4. Life Science

9.4.1. Structure and Function in Living Systems

9.4.1.1. The student will understand that organisms use the interaction of cellular processes as well as tissues and organ systems to maintain homeostasis.
9.4.1.1.1. Explain how cell processes are influenced by internal and external factors, such as pH and temperature, and how cells and organisms respond to changes in their environment to maintain homeostasis.
Human biology IBronchi - large tubules that branch from the trachea to carry air in and out of the lungs. Capillaries - the smallest blood vessels found in very rich networks between arteries and veins; the site where many substances are exchanged. Antibodies - a specific protein produced by B lymphocytes that attaches to an antigen and leads to its removal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7
9.4.1.1.2. Describe how the functions of individual organ systems are integrated to maintain homeostasis in an organism.
Human biology IBronchi - large tubules that branch from the trachea to carry air in and out of the lungs. Capillaries - the smallest blood vessels found in very rich networks between arteries and veins; the site where many substances are exchanged. Antibodies - a specific protein produced by B lymphocytes that attaches to an antigen and leads to its removal. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7
9.4.1.2. The student will understand that cells and cell structures have specific functions that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce.
9.4.1.2.1. Recognize that cells are composed primarily of a few elements (carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur), and describe the basic molecular structures of cells and the primary functions of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Cell structure and functionMatch each Cell structure term to its definition like DNA, Lysosomes, Mitochondrion, Lipids, Endoplasmic reticulum, Osmosis and many more. What are the organelles that provide the energy to sperm cells? What hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and maltase are composed of? These animal and plant cell worksheets recommended for students of High School Biology. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :5
9.4.1.2.2. Recognize that the work of the cell is carried out primarily by proteins, most of which are enzymes, and that protein function depends on the amino acid sequence and the shape it takes as a consequence of the interactions between those amino acids.
Nucleic acids and protein synthesisThe term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.4.1.2.4. Explain the function and importance of cell organelles for prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells as related to the basic cell processes of respiration, photosynthesis, protein synthesis and cell reproduction.
Cell structure and functionMatch each Cell structure term to its definition like DNA, Lysosomes, Mitochondrion, Lipids, Endoplasmic reticulum, Osmosis and many more. What are the organelles that provide the energy to sperm cells? What hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and maltase are composed of? These animal and plant cell worksheets recommended for students of High School Biology. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :5
9.4.1.2.6. Explain the process of mitosis in the formation of identical new cells and maintaining chromosome number during asexual reproduction.
Cell ReproductionThe process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4

9.4.2. Interdependence among Living Systems

9.4.2.2. The student will understand that matter cycles and energy flows through different levels of organization of living systems and the physical environment, as chemical elements are combined in different ways.
9.4.2.2.1. Use words and equations to differentiate between the processes of photosynthesis and respiration in terms of energy flow, beginning reactants and end products.
Cell processesFreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7
Photosynthesis and respirationPhotosynthesis may be thought of as a chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil plus solar energy combine to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. What is similarity between human skeletal muscles and some bacteria? Match each Photosynthesis ad respiration term to its definition like Glucose, Chloroplast, Organelle, Guard Cells and many more. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9.4.2.2.2. Explain how matter and energy in an ecosystem is transformed and transferred among organisms, and how energy is dissipated as heat into the environment.
Ecology IMatch each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
Ecology IIMatch each Ecology term to its definition like Trophic level, Food web, Consumer, Energy, Herbivore and more. Which component is not recycled in an ecosystem? Why Vultures, which are classified as scavengers, are an important part of an ecosystem? Which characteristic does creeping vine that is parasitic on other plants shares with all other heterotrophs? Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

9.4.3. Evolution in Living Systems

9.4.3.1. The student will understand that genetic information found in the cell provides information for assembling proteins, which dictate the expression of traits in an individual.
9.4.3.1.1. Explain the relationships among DNA, genes and chromosomes.
Cell ReproductionThe process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
Nucleic acids and protein synthesisThe term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Genetics and heredity IHow many chromosomes would normally be contained in a gamete? Match each Genetics and heredity term to its definition like Genetic code, Crossing-over, Fertilization, Codon, Dominant allele, Ribosomes, Sex cells, Punnett square, Prophase II. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7
9.4.3.1.2. In the context of a monohybrid cross, apply the terms phenotype, genotype, allele, homozygous and heterozygous.
Genetics and heredity IHow many chromosomes would normally be contained in a gamete? Match each Genetics and heredity term to its definition like Genetic code, Crossing-over, Fertilization, Codon, Dominant allele, Ribosomes, Sex cells, Punnett square, Prophase II. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7
9.4.3.1.3. Describe the process of DNA replication and the role of DNA and RNA in assembling protein molecules.
Nucleic acids and protein synthesisThe term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.4.3.2. The student will understand that variation within a species is the natural result of new inheritable characteristics occurring from new combinations of existing genes or from mutations of genes in reproductive cells.
9.4.3.2.2. Use the processes of mitosis and meiosis to explain the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual reproduction.
Cell ReproductionThe process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9.4.3.2.3. Explain how mutations like deletions, insertions, rearrangements or substitutions of DNA segments in gametes may have no effect, may harm, or rarely may be beneficial, and can result in genetic variation within a species.
Nucleic acids and protein synthesisThe term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.4.3.3. The student will understand that evolution by natural selection is a scientific explanation for the history and diversity of life on Earth.
9.4.3.3.1. Describe how evidence led Darwin to develop the theory of natural selection and common descent to explain evolution.
Evolution and classificationCategorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9.4.3.3.3. Recognize that artificial selection has led to offspring through successive generations that can be very different in appearance and behavior from their distant ancestors.
Evolution and classificationCategorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9.4.3.3.4. Explain why genetic variation within a population is essential for evolution to occur.
Evolution and classificationCategorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9.4.3.3.5. Explain how competition for finite resources and the changing environment promotes natural selection on offspring survival, depending on whether the offspring have characteristics that are advantageous or disadvantageous in the new environment.
Evolution and classificationCategorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3

9.4.4. Human Interactions with Living Systems

9.4.4.2. The student will understand that personal and community health can be affected by the environment, body functions and human behavior.
9.4.4.2.1. Describe how some diseases can sometimes be predicted by genetic testing and how this affects parental and community decisions.
DNA technology/genetic engineeringThis topic is about biology and Forensic science. Students will learn to identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA and protein. They will also learn to describe the importance of generic information to forensics. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3

MN.9C. Chemistry

9C.2. Physical Science

9C.2.1. Matter
9C.2.1.1. The student will understand that the periodic table illustrates how patterns in the physical and chemical properties of elements are related to atomic structure.
9C.2.1.1.2. Identify and compare trends on the periodic table, including reactivity and relative sizes of atoms and ions; use the trends to explain the properties of subgroups, including metals, non-metals, alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases.
Elements - Set IWorksheets :3
Elements - Set IIWorksheets :3
9C.2.1.2. The student will understand that chemical and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds.
9C.2.1.2.2. Compare and contrast the structure, properties and uses of organic compounds, such as hydrocarbons, alcohols, sugars, fats and proteins.
Organic ChemistryWorksheets :3
9C.2.1.2.3. Use IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature to write chemical formulas and name molecular and ionic compounds, including those that contain polyatomic ions.
9C.2.1.2.5. Determine percent composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas of simple compounds.
9C.2.1.2.6. Describe the dynamic process by which solutes dissolve in solvents and calculate concentrations, including percent concentration, molarity and parts per million.
SolutionsWorksheets :3
9C.2.1.3. The student will understand that chemical reactions describe a chemical change in which one or more reactants are transformed into one or more products.
9C.2.1.3.1. Classify chemical reactions as double replacement, single replacement, synthesis, decomposition or combustion.
9C.2.1.3.2. Use solubility and activity of ions to determine whether a double replacement or single replacement reaction will occur.
Matter and EnergyMatter is any substance that has mass and takes up space. Energy can be transferred as heat or as work. Energy is a property that matter has. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :6Vocabulary :3
9C.2.1.3.3. Relate the properties of acids and bases to the ions they contain and predict the products of an acid-base reaction.
Acids, Bases and SaltsFreeWorksheets :3Vocabulary :1
9C.2.1.3.4. Balance chemical equations by applying the laws of conservation of mass and constant composition.
Chemical EquationsWorksheets :3
9C.2.1.3.6. Describe the factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction, including temperature, pressure, mixing, concentration, particle size, surface area and catalyst.
Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :6Vocabulary :3
9C.2.1.3.7. Recognize that some chemical reactions are reversible and that not all chemical reactions go to completion.
9C.2.1.4. The student will understand that states of matter can be described in terms of motion of molecules. The properties and behavior of gases can be explained using the Kinetic Molecular Theory.
9C.2.1.4.1. Use kinetic molecular theory to explain how changes in energy content affect the state of matter (solid, liquid and gaseous phases).
States of MatterThere are Four states of matter observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Matter in the solid state has a fixed volume and shape, with component particles (atoms, molecules or ions) close together and fixed into place. Matter in the liquid state has a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are close together but move freely. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, adapting both to fit its container. Its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place. Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9C.2.1.4.2. Explain changes in temperature, pressure, volume and number of particles of a gas in terms of the random motion of molecules in an ideal gas.
States of MatterThere are Four states of matter observable in everyday life: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma. Matter in the solid state has a fixed volume and shape, with component particles (atoms, molecules or ions) close together and fixed into place. Matter in the liquid state has a fixed volume, but has a variable shape that adapts to fit its container. Its particles are close together but move freely. Matter in the gaseous state has both variable volume and shape, adapting both to fit its container. Its particles are neither close together nor fixed in place. Matter in the plasma state has variable volume and shape. Read more...iWorksheets :3

MN.9P. Physics

9P.2. Physical Science

9P.2.2. Motion
9P.2.2.1. The student will understand that forces and inertia determine the motion of objects.
9P.2.2.1.2. Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
Forces - Set IIWorksheets :3
9P.2.2.1.3. Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
9P.2.2.2. The student will understand that when objects change their motion or interact with other objects in the absence of frictional forces, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant.
9P.2.2.2.1. Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces.
Matter and EnergyMatter is any substance that has mass and takes up space. Energy can be transferred as heat or as work. Energy is a property that matter has. Read more...iWorksheets :3
Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :6Vocabulary :3
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
Forces - Set IIWorksheets :3
Work and EnergyWorksheets :4
HeatWorksheets :3
9P.2.2.2.2. Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.
9P.2.2.2.3. Use conservation of momentum and energy to analyze the elastic collision of two solid objects in one-dimensional motion.
9P.2.3. Energy
9P.2.3.1. The student will understand that sound waves are generated from mechanical oscillations of objects and travel through a medium.
9P.2.3.1.2. Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.1.3. Explain how wave properties, such as interference, resonance, refraction and reflection, affect sound waves.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
SoundWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.1.4. Describe the Doppler effect changes that occur in an observed sound as a result of the motion of a source of the sound relative to a receiver.
SoundWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.2. The student will understand that electrons respond to electric fields and voltages by moving through electrical circuits and this motion generates magnetic fields.
9P.2.3.2.1. Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electrical field, and how that forms the basis for electrical circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2.2. Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2.4. Use the interplay of electric and magnetic forces to explain how motors, generators, and transformers work.
ElectromagnetismThe production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.3. The student will understand that magnetic and electric fields interact to produce electromagnetic waves.
9P.2.3.3.1. Describe the nature of the magnetic and electrical fields in a propagating electromagnetic wave.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
MagnetismWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.3.2. Quantitatively relate the speed of light in a medium to its frequency and wave-length in that medium, and in free space.
LightWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.3.4. Use properties of light, including reflection, refraction, interference, Doppler effect and the photoelectric effect, to explain phenomena and describe applications.
LightWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.3.5. Compare the wave model and particle model in explaining properties of light.
LightWorksheets :3
9P.2.3.3.6. Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of different kinds of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.4. The student will understand that heat is energy transferred between objects or regions that are at different temperatures by the processes of convection, conduction and radiation.
9P.2.3.4.1. Describe and calculate the quantity of heat transferred between solids and/or liquids, using specific heat, density and temperatures.
HeatWorksheets :3

MN.9.13. Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12

Craft and Structure

9.13.4.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.
Ecology IMatch each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
ThermodynamicsWorksheets :4

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

9.13.7.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
ThermodynamicsWorksheets :4

MN.9.1. The Nature of Science and Engineering

9.1.1. The Practice of Science

9.1.1.1. The student will understand that science is a way of knowing about the natural world that is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review.
9.1.1.1.3. Explain how the traditions and norms of science define the bounds of professional scientific practice and reveal instances of scientific error or misconduct.
9.1.1.1.7. Explain how scientific and technological innovations - as well as new evidence - can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.

9.1.3. Interactions Among Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Society

9.1.3.3. The student will understand that science and engineering operate in the context of society and both influence and are influenced by this context.
9.1.3.3.1. Describe how values and constraints affect science and engineering.
9.1.3.4. The student will understand that science, technology, engineering and mathematics rely on each other to enhance knowledge and understanding.
9.1.3.4.2. Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, computers and measurement instruments in science and engineering contexts.
Lab InvestigationsWorksheets :3
Lab investigationsWorksheets :3

MN.9.2. Physical Science

9.2.2. Motion

9.2.2.2. The student will understand that forces and object mass determine the motion of an object.
9.2.2.2.1. Recognize that the inertia of an object causes it to resist changes in motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
9.2.2.2.2. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4

9.2.3. Energy

9.2.3.2. The student will understand that energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved.
9.2.3.2.4. Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
Modern ElectronicsWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.7. Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4

MN.9.3. Earth and Space Science

9.3.1. Earth Structure and Processes

9.3.1.1. The student will understand that the relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.1.1. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries.
9.3.1.1.3. Describe how the pattern of magnetic reversals and rock ages on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge provides evidence of sea-floor spreading.
9.3.1.1.4. Explain how the rock record provides evidence for plate movement.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3
9.3.1.1.5. Describe how experimental and observational evidence led to the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.3. The student will understand that by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, geologic events can be inferred and geologic time can be estimated.
9.3.1.3.1. Use relative dating techniques to explain how the structure of the Earth and life on Earth has changed over short and long periods of time.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3

9.3.2. Interdependence Within the Earth System

9.3.2.1. The student will understand that the Earth system has internal and external sources of energy, which produce heat and drive the motion of material in the oceans, atmosphere and solid earth.
9.3.2.1.2. Explain how the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives the convection circulation in the mantle to move tectonic plates.
9.3.2.2. The student will understand that global climate is determined by distribution of energy from the sun at the Earth's surface.
9.3.2.2.1. Explain how Earth's rotation, ocean currents, configuration of mountain ranges, and composition of the atmosphere influence the absorption and distribution of energy, which contributes to global climatic patterns.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.3.2.2.2. Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today.
9.3.2.3. The student will understand that material in the Earth system cycles through different reservoirs, and is powered by the Earth's sources of energy.
9.3.2.3.1. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Weather IWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3

9.3.3. The Universe

9.3.3.2. The student will understand that the solar system, sun, and Earth formed over billions of years.
9.3.3.2.1. Describe how the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
9.3.3.2.2.. Explain how the Earth evolved into its present habitable form through interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms.
9.3.3.3. The student will understand that the big bang theory states that the universe expanded from a hot, dense chaotic mass, after which elements formed and clumped together to eventually form stars and galaxies.
9.3.3.3.1. Explain how evidence is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
9.3.3.3.2. Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.

9.3.4. Human Interactions with the Earth System

9.3.4.1. The student will understand that people consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems.
9.3.4.1.1. Analyze the benefits, costs, risks and tradeoffs associated with natural hazards, including the selection of land use and engineering mitigation.
Weather IIWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9.3.4.1.2. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The AtmosphereWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MN.9P. Physics

9P.2. Physical Science

9P.2.2. Motion
9P.2.2.1. The student will understand that forces and inertia determine the motion of objects.
9P.2.2.1.2. Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
9P.2.2.1.3. Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
9P.2.2.2. The student will understand that when objects change their motion or interact with other objects in the absence of frictional forces, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant.
9P.2.2.2.1. Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces.
9P.2.2.2.2. Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.
9P.2.3. Energy
9P.2.3.1. The student will understand that sound waves are generated from mechanical oscillations of objects and travel through a medium.
9P.2.3.1.2. Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.1.3. Explain how wave properties, such as interference, resonance, refraction and reflection, affect sound waves.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2. The student will understand that electrons respond to electric fields and voltages by moving through electrical circuits and this motion generates magnetic fields.
9P.2.3.2.1. Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electrical field, and how that forms the basis for electrical circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2.2. Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.3. The student will understand that magnetic and electric fields interact to produce electromagnetic waves.
9P.2.3.3.1. Describe the nature of the magnetic and electrical fields in a propagating electromagnetic wave.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.3.6. Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of different kinds of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4

MN.9.13. Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12

Craft and Structure

9.13.4.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.

MN.9.1. The Nature of Science and Engineering

9.1.1. The Practice of Science

9.1.1.1. The student will understand that science is a way of knowing about the natural world that is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review.
9.1.1.1.3. Explain how the traditions and norms of science define the bounds of professional scientific practice and reveal instances of scientific error or misconduct.
9.1.1.1.7. Explain how scientific and technological innovations - as well as new evidence - can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.

9.1.3. Interactions Among Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Society

9.1.3.3. The student will understand that science and engineering operate in the context of society and both influence and are influenced by this context.
9.1.3.3.1. Describe how values and constraints affect science and engineering.
9.1.3.4. The student will understand that science, technology, engineering and mathematics rely on each other to enhance knowledge and understanding.
9.1.3.4.2. Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, computers and measurement instruments in science and engineering contexts.
Lab InvestigationsWorksheets :3
Lab investigationsWorksheets :3

MN.9.2. Physical Science

9.2.2. Motion

9.2.2.2. The student will understand that forces and object mass determine the motion of an object.
9.2.2.2.1. Recognize that the inertia of an object causes it to resist changes in motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
9.2.2.2.2. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).

9.2.3. Energy

9.2.3.2. The student will understand that energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved.
9.2.3.2.4. Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
Modern ElectronicsWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.7. Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4

MN.9.3. Earth and Space Science

9.3.1. Earth Structure and Processes

9.3.1.1. The student will understand that the relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.1.1. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries.
9.3.1.1.3. Describe how the pattern of magnetic reversals and rock ages on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge provides evidence of sea-floor spreading.
9.3.1.1.4. Explain how the rock record provides evidence for plate movement.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3
9.3.1.1.5. Describe how experimental and observational evidence led to the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.3. The student will understand that by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, geologic events can be inferred and geologic time can be estimated.
9.3.1.3.1. Use relative dating techniques to explain how the structure of the Earth and life on Earth has changed over short and long periods of time.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3

9.3.2. Interdependence Within the Earth System

9.3.2.1. The student will understand that the Earth system has internal and external sources of energy, which produce heat and drive the motion of material in the oceans, atmosphere and solid earth.
9.3.2.1.2. Explain how the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives the convection circulation in the mantle to move tectonic plates.
9.3.2.2. The student will understand that global climate is determined by distribution of energy from the sun at the Earth's surface.
9.3.2.2.1. Explain how Earth's rotation, ocean currents, configuration of mountain ranges, and composition of the atmosphere influence the absorption and distribution of energy, which contributes to global climatic patterns.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.3.2.2.2. Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today.
9.3.2.3. The student will understand that material in the Earth system cycles through different reservoirs, and is powered by the Earth's sources of energy.
9.3.2.3.1. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Weather IWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3

9.3.3. The Universe

9.3.3.2. The student will understand that the solar system, sun, and Earth formed over billions of years.
9.3.3.2.1. Describe how the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
9.3.3.2.2.. Explain how the Earth evolved into its present habitable form through interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms.
9.3.3.3. The student will understand that the big bang theory states that the universe expanded from a hot, dense chaotic mass, after which elements formed and clumped together to eventually form stars and galaxies.
9.3.3.3.1. Explain how evidence is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
9.3.3.3.2. Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.

9.3.4. Human Interactions with the Earth System

9.3.4.1. The student will understand that people consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems.
9.3.4.1.1. Analyze the benefits, costs, risks and tradeoffs associated with natural hazards, including the selection of land use and engineering mitigation.
Weather IIWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9.3.4.1.2. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The AtmosphereWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MN.9C. Chemistry

9C.2. Physical Science

9C.2.1. Matter
9C.2.1.2. The student will understand that chemical and physical properties of matter result from the ability of atoms to form bonds.
9C.2.1.2.3. Use IUPAC (International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) nomenclature to write chemical formulas and name molecular and ionic compounds, including those that contain polyatomic ions.
9C.2.1.2.5. Determine percent composition, empirical formulas and molecular formulas of simple compounds.

MN.9P. Physics

9P.2. Physical Science

9P.2.2. Motion
9P.2.2.1. The student will understand that forces and inertia determine the motion of objects.
9P.2.2.1.2. Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
9P.2.2.1.3. Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
9P.2.2.2. The student will understand that when objects change their motion or interact with other objects in the absence of frictional forces, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant.
9P.2.2.2.1. Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces.
9P.2.2.2.2. Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.
9P.2.3. Energy
9P.2.3.1. The student will understand that sound waves are generated from mechanical oscillations of objects and travel through a medium.
9P.2.3.1.2. Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.1.3. Explain how wave properties, such as interference, resonance, refraction and reflection, affect sound waves.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2. The student will understand that electrons respond to electric fields and voltages by moving through electrical circuits and this motion generates magnetic fields.
9P.2.3.2.1. Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electrical field, and how that forms the basis for electrical circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2.2. Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.3. The student will understand that magnetic and electric fields interact to produce electromagnetic waves.
9P.2.3.3.1. Describe the nature of the magnetic and electrical fields in a propagating electromagnetic wave.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.3.6. Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of different kinds of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4

MN.11.13. Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12

Craft and Structure

11.13.4.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Ecology IMatch each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
ThermodynamicsWorksheets :4

MN.9.1. The Nature of Science and Engineering

9.1.1. The Practice of Science

9.1.1.1. The student will understand that science is a way of knowing about the natural world that is characterized by empirical criteria, logical argument and skeptical review.
9.1.1.1.3. Explain how the traditions and norms of science define the bounds of professional scientific practice and reveal instances of scientific error or misconduct.
9.1.1.1.7. Explain how scientific and technological innovations - as well as new evidence - can challenge portions of, or entire accepted theories and models including, but not limited to: cell theory, atomic theory, theory of evolution, plate tectonic theory, germ theory of disease, and the big bang theory.

9.1.3. Interactions Among Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics, and Society

9.1.3.3. The student will understand that science and engineering operate in the context of society and both influence and are influenced by this context.
9.1.3.3.1. Describe how values and constraints affect science and engineering.
9.1.3.4. The student will understand that science, technology, engineering and mathematics rely on each other to enhance knowledge and understanding.
9.1.3.4.2. Determine and use appropriate safety procedures, tools, computers and measurement instruments in science and engineering contexts.
Lab InvestigationsWorksheets :3
Lab investigationsWorksheets :3

MN.9.2. Physical Science

9.2.2. Motion

9.2.2.2. The student will understand that forces and object mass determine the motion of an object.
9.2.2.2.1. Recognize that the inertia of an object causes it to resist changes in motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
9.2.2.2.2. Explain and calculate the acceleration of an object subjected to a set of forces in one dimension (F=ma).
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4

9.2.3. Energy

9.2.3.2. The student will understand that energy can be transformed within a system or transferred to other systems or the environment, but is always conserved.
9.2.3.2.4. Explain and calculate current, voltage and resistance, and describe energy transfers in simple electric circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
Modern ElectronicsWorksheets :3
9.2.3.2.7. Describe the properties and uses of forms of electromagnetic radiation from radio frequencies through gamma radiation.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4

MN.9.3. Earth and Space Science

9.3.1. Earth Structure and Processes

9.3.1.1. The student will understand that the relationships among earthquakes, mountains, volcanoes, fossil deposits, rock layers and ocean features provide evidence for the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.1.1. Compare and contrast the interaction of tectonic plates at convergent and divergent boundaries.
9.3.1.1.3. Describe how the pattern of magnetic reversals and rock ages on both sides of a mid-ocean ridge provides evidence of sea-floor spreading.
9.3.1.1.4. Explain how the rock record provides evidence for plate movement.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3
9.3.1.1.5. Describe how experimental and observational evidence led to the theory of plate tectonics.
9.3.1.3. The student will understand that by observing rock sequences and using fossils to correlate the sequences at various locations, geologic events can be inferred and geologic time can be estimated.
9.3.1.3.1. Use relative dating techniques to explain how the structure of the Earth and life on Earth has changed over short and long periods of time.
Fossils IWorksheets :4
Fossils IIWorksheets :3

9.3.2. Interdependence Within the Earth System

9.3.2.1. The student will understand that the Earth system has internal and external sources of energy, which produce heat and drive the motion of material in the oceans, atmosphere and solid earth.
9.3.2.1.2. Explain how the outward transfer of Earth's internal heat drives the convection circulation in the mantle to move tectonic plates.
9.3.2.2. The student will understand that global climate is determined by distribution of energy from the sun at the Earth's surface.
9.3.2.2.1. Explain how Earth's rotation, ocean currents, configuration of mountain ranges, and composition of the atmosphere influence the absorption and distribution of energy, which contributes to global climatic patterns.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9.3.2.2.2. Explain how evidence from the geologic record, including ice core samples, indicates that climate changes have occurred at varying rates over geologic time and continue to occur today.
9.3.2.3. The student will understand that material in the Earth system cycles through different reservoirs, and is powered by the Earth's sources of energy.
9.3.2.3.1. Trace the cyclical movement of carbon, oxygen and nitrogen through the lithosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere and biosphere.
Weather IWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3

9.3.3. The Universe

9.3.3.2. The student will understand that the solar system, sun, and Earth formed over billions of years.
9.3.3.2.1. Describe how the solar system formed from a nebular cloud of dust and gas 4.6 billion years ago.
9.3.3.2.2.. Explain how the Earth evolved into its present habitable form through interactions among the solid earth, the oceans, the atmosphere and organisms.
9.3.3.3. The student will understand that the big bang theory states that the universe expanded from a hot, dense chaotic mass, after which elements formed and clumped together to eventually form stars and galaxies.
9.3.3.3.1. Explain how evidence is used to understand the composition, early history and expansion of the universe.
9.3.3.3.2. Explain how gravitational clumping leads to nuclear fusion, producing energy and the chemical elements of a star.

9.3.4. Human Interactions with the Earth System

9.3.4.1. The student will understand that people consider potential benefits, costs and risks to make decisions on how they interact with natural systems.
9.3.4.1.1. Analyze the benefits, costs, risks and tradeoffs associated with natural hazards, including the selection of land use and engineering mitigation.
Weather IIWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9.3.4.1.2. Explain how human activity and natural processes are altering the hydrosphere, biosphere, lithosphere and atmosphere, including pollution, topography and climate.
OceansWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The AtmosphereWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MN.9P. Physics

9P.2. Physical Science

9P.2.2. Motion
9P.2.2.1. The student will understand that forces and inertia determine the motion of objects.
9P.2.2.1.2. Apply Newton's three laws of motion to calculate and analyze the effect of forces and momentum on motion.
Forces - Set IWorksheets :4
9P.2.2.1.3. Use gravitational force to explain the motion of objects near Earth and in the universe.
9P.2.2.2. The student will understand that when objects change their motion or interact with other objects in the absence of frictional forces, the total amount of mechanical energy remains constant.
9P.2.2.2.1. Explain and calculate the work, power, potential energy and kinetic energy involved in objects moving under the influence of gravity and other mechanical forces.
9P.2.2.2.2. Describe and calculate the change in velocity for objects when forces are applied perpendicular to the direction of motion.
9P.2.3. Energy
9P.2.3.1. The student will understand that sound waves are generated from mechanical oscillations of objects and travel through a medium.
9P.2.3.1.2. Describe how vibration of physical objects sets up transverse and longitudinal waves in gases, liquids and solid materials.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.1.3. Explain how wave properties, such as interference, resonance, refraction and reflection, affect sound waves.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2. The student will understand that electrons respond to electric fields and voltages by moving through electrical circuits and this motion generates magnetic fields.
9P.2.3.2.1. Explain why currents flow when free charges are placed in an electrical field, and how that forms the basis for electrical circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.2.2. Explain and calculate the relationship of current, voltage, resistance and power in series and parallel circuits.
Electric CircuitsWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.3. The student will understand that magnetic and electric fields interact to produce electromagnetic waves.
9P.2.3.3.1. Describe the nature of the magnetic and electrical fields in a propagating electromagnetic wave.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9P.2.3.3.6. Compare the wavelength, frequency and energy of different kinds of waves in the electromagnetic spectrum and describe their applications.
Vibrations and WavesVibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4

MN.11.13. Reading Benchmarks: Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12

Craft and Structure

11.13.4.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, equations, graphical representations, tabular representations, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Chemical ReactionsWorksheets :6Vocabulary :3
Standards

NewPath Learning resources are fully aligned to US Education Standards. Select a standard below to view correlations to your selected resource:

Alabama Courses of StudyAlaska Content and Performance StandardsArizona's College and Career Ready StandardsArkansas Curriculum FrameworksCalifornia Content StandardsColorado Academic Standards (CAS)Common Core State StandardsConnecticut Core StandardsDelaware Standards and InstructionFlorida StandardsGeorgia Standards of ExcellenceHawaii Content and Performance StandardsIdaho Content StandardsIllinois Learning StandardsIndiana Academic StandardsIowa CoreKansas Academic StandardsKentucky Academic StandardsLouisiana Academic StandardsMaine Learning ResultsMaryland College and Career-Ready StandardsMaryland StandardsMassachusetts Curriculum FrameworksMichigan Academic StandardsMinnesota Academic StandardsMississippi College & Career Readiness StandardsMissouri Learning StandardsMontana Content StandardsNational STEM StandardsNebraska Core Academic Content StandardsNevada Academic Content StandardsNew Hampshire College and Career Ready StandardsNew Jersey Common Core StandardsNew Jersey Student Learning StandardsNew Mexico Content StandardsNew York State Learning Standards and Core CurriculumNext Generation Science Standards (NGSS Comprehensive)North Carolina Standard Course of StudyNorth Dakota Academic Content StandardsOhio Learning StandardsOklahoma Academic StandardsOregon Academic Content StandardsPennsylvania Core and Academic StandardsRhode Island World-Class StandardsSouth Carolina Standards & LearningSouth Dakota Content StandardsTennessee Academic StandardsTexas Assessments of Academic Readiness (STAAR)Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)U.S. National StandardsUtah Core StandardsVermont Framework of Standards and LearningVirgin Islands Common Core StandardsVirginia Standards of LearningWashington DC Academic StandardsWashington State K–12 Learning Standards and GuidelinesWest Virginia College and Career Readiness StandardsWisconsin Academic StandardsWyoming Content and Performance Standards