South Carolina Standards & Learning for High School Earth Science

Earth`s Climate
Worksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Earth`s Surface
Worksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Our Solar System
Worksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3

SC.H.B. BIOLOGY 1

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.B.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.B.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
The science of biology
The processes of science include the formulation of scientifically investigable questions, construction of investigations into those questions, the collection of appropriate data, the evaluation of the meaning of those data, and the communication of this evaluation. Scientific knowledge is based on observation and inference; it is important to recognize that these are very different things. Read more...iWorksheets :3

CELLS AS A SYSTEM

H.B.2. The student will demonstrate the understanding that the essential functions of life take place within cells or systems of cells.
H.B.2A. Conceptual Understanding: The essential functions of a cell involve chemical reactions that take place between many different types of molecules (including carbohydrates, lipids, proteins and nucleic acids) that are catalyzed by enzymes. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.2A.1. Construct explanations of how the structures of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids (including DNA and RNA) are related to their functions in organisms.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.B.2B. Conceptual Understanding: Organisms and their parts are made of cells. Cells are the structural units of life and have specialized substructures that carry out the essential functions of life. Viruses lack cellular organization and therefore cannot independently carry out all of the essential functions of life. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.2B.1. Develop and use models to explain how specialized structures within cells (including the nucleus, chromosomes, cytoskeleton, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes and Golgi complex) interact to produce, modify, and transport proteins. Models should compare and contrast how prokaryotic cells meet the same life needs as eukaryotic cells without similar structures.
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.B.2B.2. Collect and interpret descriptive data on cell structure to compare and contrast different types of cells (including prokaryotic versus eukaryotic, and animal versus plant versus fungal).
Cell structure and function
Match each Cell structure term to its definition like DNA, Lysosomes, Mitochondrion, Lipids, Endoplasmic reticulum, Osmosis and many more. What are the organelles that provide the energy to sperm cells? What hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and maltase are composed of? These animal and plant cell worksheets recommended for students of High School Biology. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :5
H.B.2B.3. Obtain information to contrast the structure of viruses from that of cells and to explain, in general, why viruses must use living cells to reproduce.
Microorganisms I
Hyphae - threadlike filaments of branching cells that make up the bodies of multicellular fungi. Gymnosperm - group of vascular plants that develop seeds without a protective outer covering; they do not produce flowers or fruit. Flagellum - a tail-like structure found on bacteria and select protists which helps them to move. Volvox - a freshwater, chlorophyll-containing green alga, that occurs in ball-shaped colonies. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :5
H.B.2C. Conceptual Understanding: Transport processes which move materials into and out of the cell serve to maintain the homeostasis of the cell. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.2C.1. Develop and use models to exemplify how the cell membrane serves to maintain homeostasis of the cell through both active and passive transport processes.
Cell structure and function
Match each Cell structure term to its definition like DNA, Lysosomes, Mitochondrion, Lipids, Endoplasmic reticulum, Osmosis and many more. What are the organelles that provide the energy to sperm cells? What hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and maltase are composed of? These animal and plant cell worksheets recommended for students of High School Biology. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :5
Cell processes
FreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7
H.B.2C.2. Ask scientific questions to define the problems that organisms face in maintaining homeostasis within different environments (including water of varying solute concentrations).
Human biology I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :7
Human biology II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :7
H.B.2C.3. Analyze and interpret data to explain the movement of molecules (including water) across a membrane.
Cell structure and function
Match each Cell structure term to its definition like DNA, Lysosomes, Mitochondrion, Lipids, Endoplasmic reticulum, Osmosis and many more. What are the organelles that provide the energy to sperm cells? What hemoglobin, insulin, albumin and maltase are composed of? These animal and plant cell worksheets recommended for students of High School Biology. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :5
Cell processes
FreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7
H.B.2D. Conceptual Understanding: The cells of multicellular organisms repeatedly divide to make more cells for growth and repair. During embryonic development, a single cell gives rise to a complex, multicellular organism through the processes of both cell division and differentiation. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.2D.1. Construct models to explain how the processes of cell division and cell differentiation produce and maintain complex multicellular organisms.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.B.2D.2. Develop and use models to exemplify the changes that occur in a cell during the cell cycle (including changes in cell size, chromosomes, cell membrane/cell wall, and the number of cells produced) and predict, based on the models, what might happen to a cell that does not progress through the cycle correctly.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.B.2D.3. Construct explanations for how the cell cycle is monitored by check point systems and communicate possible consequences of the continued cycling of abnormal cells.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4

ENERGY TRANSFER

H.B.3. The student will demonstrate the understanding that all essential processes within organisms require energy which in most ecosystems is ultimately derived from the Sun and transferred into chemical energy by the photosynthetic organisms of that ecosystem.
H.B.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Cells transform energy that organisms need to perform essential life functions through a complex sequence of reactions in which chemical energy is transferred from one system of interacting molecules to another. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.3A.2. Develop and revise models to describe how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
Photosynthesis and respiration
Photosynthesis may be thought of as a chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil plus solar energy combine to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. What is similarity between human skeletal muscles and some bacteria? Match each Photosynthesis ad respiration term to its definition like Glucose, Chloroplast, Organelle, Guard Cells and many more. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
H.B.3A.4. Develop models of the major inputs and outputs of cellular respiration (aerobic and anaerobic) to exemplify the chemical process in which the bonds of food molecules are broken, the bonds of new compounds are formed and a net transfer of energy results. Use the models to explain common exercise phenomena (such as lactic acid buildup, changes in breathing during and after exercise, cool down after exercise).
Cell processes
FreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7
H.B.3A.5. Plan and conduct scientific investigations or computer simulations to determine the relationship between variables that affect the processes of fermentation and/or cellular respiration in living organisms and interpret the data in terms of real-world phenomena.
Cell processes
FreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7

HEREDITY-INHERITANCE AND VARIATION OF TRAITS

H.B.4. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the specific mechanisms by which characteristics or traits are transferred from one generation to the next via genes.
H.B.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Each chromosome consists of a single DNA molecule. Each gene on the chromosome is a particular segment of DNA. The chemical structure of DNA provides a mechanism that ensures that information is preserved and transferred to subsequent generations. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.4A.1. Develop and use models at different scales to explain the relationship between DNA, genes, and chromosomes in coding the instructions for characteristic traits transferred from parent to offspring.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Genetics and heredity I
How many chromosomes would normally be contained in a gamete? Match each Genetics and heredity term to its definition like Genetic code, Crossing-over, Fertilization, Codon, Dominant allele, Ribosomes, Sex cells, Punnett square, Prophase II. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7
H.B.4A.2. Develop and use models to explain how genetic information (DNA) is copied for transmission to subsequent generations of cells (mitosis).
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.B.4B. Conceptual Understanding: In order for information stored in DNA to direct cellular processes, a gene needs to be transcribed from DNA to RNA and then must be translated by the cellular machinery into a protein or an RNA molecule. The protein and RNA products from these processes determine cellular activities and the unique characteristics of an individual. Modern techniques in biotechnology can manipulate DNA to solve human problems. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.4B.2. Obtain, evaluate and communicate information on how biotechnology (including gel electrophoresis, plasmid-based transformation and DNA fingerprinting) may be used in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and forensic science.
DNA technology/genetic engineering
This topic is about biology and Forensic science. Students will learn to identify the structure and function of DNA, RNA and protein. They will also learn to describe the importance of generic information to forensics. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.B.4C. Conceptual Understanding: Sex cells are formed by a process of cell division in which the number of chromosomes per cell is halved after replication. With the exception of sex chromosomes, for each chromosome in the body cells of a multicellular organism, there is a second similar, but not identical, chromosome. Although these pairs of similar chromosomes can carry the same genes, they may have slightly different alleles. During meiosis the pairs of similar chromosomes may cross and trade pieces. One chromosome from each pair is randomly passed on to form sex cells resulting in a multitude of possible genetic combinations. The cell produced during fertilization has one set of chromosomes from each parent. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.4C.1. Develop and use models of sex cell formation (meiosis) to explain why the DNA of the daughter cells is different from the DNA of the parent cell.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.B.4C.3. Construct explanations for how meiosis followed by fertilization ensures genetic variation among offspring within the same family and genetic diversity within populations of sexually reproducing organisms.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.B.4D. Conceptual Understanding: Imperfect transmission of genetic information may have positive, negative, or no consequences to the organism. DNA replication is tightly regulated and remarkably accurate, but errors do occur and result in mutations which (rarely) are a source of genetic variation. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.4D.1. Develop and use models to explain how mutations in DNA that occur during replication (1) can affect the proteins that are produced or the traits that result and (2) may or may not be inherited.
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3

BIOLOGY

H.B-5. The student will demonstrate an understanding of biological evolution and the diversity of life.
H.B-5.1. Summarize the process of natural selection.
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
H.B-5.3. Explain how diversity within a species increases the chances of its survival.
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
H.B-5.4. Explain how genetic variability and environmental factors lead to biological evolution.
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3

ECOSYSTEM DYNAMICS

H.B.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding that ecosystems are complex, interactive systems that include both biological communities and physical components of the environment.
H.B.6B. Conceptual Understanding: Photosynthesis and cellular respiration are important components of the carbon cycle, in which carbon is exchanged between the biosphere, atmosphere, oceans, and geosphere through chemical, physical, geological, and biological processes. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.B.6B.1. Develop and use models of the carbon cycle, which include the interactions between photosynthesis, cellular respiration and other processes that release carbon dioxide, to evaluate the effects of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide on natural and agricultural ecosystems.
Ecology I
Match each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
Ecology II
Match each Ecology term to its definition like Trophic level, Food web, Consumer, Energy, Herbivore and more. Which component is not recycled in an ecosystem? Why Vultures, which are classified as scavengers, are an important part of an ecosystem? Which characteristic does creeping vine that is parasitic on other plants shares with all other heterotrophs? Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

SC.H.C. CHEMISTRY 1

SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.C.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.C.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.1A.5. Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate metric units, (2) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, and (3) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.
Thermodynamics
Worksheets :4

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND NUCLEAR PROCESSES

H.C.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of atomic structure and nuclear processes.
H.C.2A. Conceptual Understanding: The existence of atoms can be used to explain the structure and behavior of matter. Each atom consists of a charged nucleus, consisting of protons and neutrons, surrounded by electrons. The interactions of these electrons between and within atoms are the primary factors that determine the chemical properties of matter. In a neutral atom the number of protons is the same as the number of electrons. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.2A.1. Obtain and communicate information to describe and compare subatomic particles with regard to mass, location, charge, electrical attractions and repulsions, and impact on the properties of an atom.
Atomic Structure - Set I
Worksheets :3
Atomic Structure - Set II
Worksheets :3
Elements - Set I
Worksheets :3
Elements - Set II
Worksheets :3
Nuclear Chemistry
Worksheets :3
Magnetism
Worksheets :3
Atomic and Nuclear Physics
FreeWorksheets :4
H.C.2A.2. Use the Bohr and quantum mechanical models of atomic structure to exemplify how electrons are distributed in atoms.

BONDING AND CHEMICAL FORMULAS

H.C.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and classification of chemical compounds.
H.C.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Elements are made up of only one kind of atom. With increasing atomic number, a predictable pattern for the addition of electrons exists. This pattern is the basis for the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. The chemical properties of an element are determined by an element’s electron configuration. Elements can react to form chemical compounds/molecules that have unique properties determined by the kinds of atoms combined to make up the compound/molecule. Essentially, the ways in which electrons are involved in bonds determines whether ionic or covalent bonds are formed. Compounds have characteristic shapes that are determined by the type and number of bonds formed. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.3A.1. Construct explanations for the formation of molecular compounds via sharing of electrons and for the formation of ionic compounds via transfer of electrons.H.C.3A.2. Use the periodic table to write and interpret the formulas and names of chemical compounds (including binary ionic compounds, binary covalent compounds, and straight-chain alkanes up to six carbons).H.C.3A.3. Analyze and interpret data to predict the type of bonding (ionic or covalent) and the shape of simple compounds by using the Lewis dot structures and oxidation numbers.
Elements - Set I
Worksheets :3
Elements - Set II
Worksheets :3
H.C.3A.4. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to generate data on the properties of substances and analyze the data to infer the types of bonds (including ionic, polar covalent, and nonpolar covalent) in simple compounds.

STATES OF MATTER

H.C.4. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure and behavior of the different states of matter.
H.C.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Matter can exist as a solid, liquid, or gas, and in very high-energy states, as plasma. In general terms, for a given chemical, the particles making up the solid are at a lower energy state than the liquid phase, which is at a lower energy state than the gaseous phase. The changes from one state of matter into another are energy dependent. The behaviors of gases are dependent on the factors of pressure, volume, and temperature. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.4A.3. Conduct controlled scientific investigations and use models to explain the behaviors of gases (including the proportional relationships among pressure, volume, and temperature).
States of Matter
Worksheets :3
Thermodynamics
Worksheets :4

SOLUTIONS, ACIDS, AND BASES

H.C.5. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the nature and properties of various types of chemical solutions.
H.C.5A. Conceptual Understanding: Solutions can exist in any of three physical states: gas, liquid, or solid. Solution concentrations can be expressed by specifying the relative amounts of solute and solvent. The nature of the solute, the solvent, the temperature, and the pressure can affect solubility. Solutes can affect such solvent properties as freezing point, boiling point, and vapor pressure. Acids, bases, and salts have characteristic properties. Several definitions of acids and bases are used in chemistry. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.5A.1. Obtain and communicate information to describe how a substance can dissolve in water by dissociation, dispersion, or ionization and how intermolecular forces affect solvation.
Solutions
Worksheets :3
H.C.5A.4. Analyze and interpret data to describe the properties of acids, bases, and salts.
Acids, Bases and Salts
FreeWorksheets :3Vocabulary :1

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

H.C.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the types, the causes, and the effects of chemical reactions.
H.C.6A. Conceptual Understanding: A chemical reaction occurs when elements and/or compounds interact, resulting in a rearrangement of the atoms of these elements and/or compounds to produce substances with unique properties. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. Reactions tend to proceed in a direction that favors lower energies. Chemical reactions can be categorized using knowledge about the reactants to predict products. Chemical reactions are quantifiable. When stress is applied to a chemical system that is in equilibrium, the system will shift in a direction that reduces that stress. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.6A.1. Develop and use models to predict the products of chemical reactions (1) based upon movements of ions; (2) based upon movements of protons; and (3) based upon movements of electrons.H.C.6A.2. Use Le Châtelier’s principle to predict shifts in chemical equilibria resulting from changes in concentration, pressure, and temperature.H.C.6A.4. Use mathematical and computational thinking to predict the amounts of reactants required and products produced in specific chemical reactions.
Chemical Equations
Worksheets :3

THERMOCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS

H.C.7. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conservation of energy and energy transfer.
H.C.7A. Conceptual Understanding: The first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. An energy diagram is used to represent changes in the energy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Enthalpy refers to the heat content that is present in an atom, ion, or compound. While some chemical reactions occur spontaneously, other reactions may require that activation energy be lowered in order for the reaction to occur. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.7A.1. Analyze and interpret data from energy diagrams and investigations to support claims that the amount of energy released or absorbed during a chemical reaction depends on changes in total bond energy.H.C.7A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the effects of temperature, surface area, stirring, concentration of reactants, and the presence of various catalysts on the rate of chemical reactions.H.C.7A.4. Develop and use models to explain the relationships between collision frequency, the energy of collisions, the orientation of molecules, activation energy, and the rates of chemical reactions.
Matter and Energy
Worksheets :3

SC.H.P. PHYSICS 1

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.P.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.P.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.H.P.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
Lab Investigations
Worksheets :3

INTERACTIONS AND FORCES

H.P.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces.
H.P.2A. Conceptual Understanding: The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2A.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the object’s displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set I
Worksheets :4
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mechanics
Worksheets :3
H.P.2A.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an object’s displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set I
Worksheets :4
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mechanics
Worksheets :3
H.P.2A.4. Develop and use models to represent an object’s displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).
Laws of Motion - Set I
Worksheets :4
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mechanics
Worksheets :3
H.P.2A.5. Construct explanations for what is meant by “constant” velocity and “constant” acceleration (including writing descriptions of the object’s motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).
Laws of Motion - Set I
Worksheets :4
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mechanics
Worksheets :3
H.P.2A.6. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences between distance and displacement; speed and velocity; constant velocity and instantaneous velocity; constant velocity and average velocity; and velocity and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set I
Worksheets :4
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mechanics
Worksheets :3
H.P.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2B.6. Construct scientific arguments to defend the use of the conservation of linear momentum in the investigation of traffic accidents in which the initial motions of the objects are used to determine the final motions of the objects.H.P.2B.7. Apply physics principles to design a device that minimizes the force on an object during a collision and construct an explanation for the design.H.P.2B.8. Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newton’s Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.H.P.2B.10. Obtain information to communicate physical situations in which Newton’s Second Law of Motion does not apply.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Momentum and Collisions
Worksheets :3
Properties of Matter
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C. Conceptual Understanding: The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newton’s Laws of Motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2C.1. Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Mechanics
Worksheets :3
H.P.2C.4. Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hooke’s Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
H.P.2D. Conceptual Understanding: The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2D.3. Obtain information to communicate how long-term gravitational interactions govern the evolution and maintenance of large-scale structures in the universe (such as the solar system and galaxies) and the patterns of motion within them.H.P.2D.5. Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
Rotational Motion/Universal Gravitation
Worksheets :3
Magnetism
Worksheets :3
H.P.2D.6. Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.H.P.2D.7. Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.H.P.2D.10. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.

INTERACTIONS AND ENERGY

H.P.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of the conservation of energy.
H.P.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Work and energy are equivalent to each other. Work is defined as the product of displacement and the force causing that displacement; this results in the transfer of mechanical energy. Therefore, in the case of mechanical energy, energy is seen as the ability to do work. This is called the work-energy principle. The rate at which work is done (or energy is transformed) is called power. For machines that do useful work for humans, the ratio of useful power output is the efficiency of the machine. For all energies and in all instances, energy in a closed system remains constant. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3A.1. Use mathematical and computational thinking to determine the work done by a constant force (W=Fd).
Work and Energy
Worksheets :4
H.P.3A.2. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with the work done on or by an object and its change in energy.
Work and Energy
Worksheets :4
H.P.3A.3. Obtain information to communicate how energy is conserved in elastic and inelastic collisions.H.P.3A.4. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the power output of the human body.
Work and Energy
Worksheets :4
H.P.3B. Conceptual Understanding: Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3B.2. Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = ½ mv^2, PEg = mgh, PEe = ½ kx^2).
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
Forces - Set II
Worksheets :3
H.P.3C. Conceptual Understanding: When there is a temperature difference between two objects, an interaction occurs in the form of a transfer of thermal energy (heat) from the hotter object to the cooler object. Thermal energy is the total internal kinetic energy of the molecules and/or atoms of a system and is related to temperature, which is the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system. Energy always flows from hot too cold through the processes of conduction, convection, or radiation. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3C.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the variables that affect the rate of heat transfer between two objects.H.P.3C.2. Analyze and interpret data to describe the thermal conductivity of different materials.
H.P.3D. Conceptual Understanding: Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3D.1. Develop and use models (such as drawings) to exemplify the interaction of mechanical waves with different boundaries (sound wave interference) including the formation of standing waves and two-source interference patterns.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
Sound
Worksheets :3
H.P.3D.2. Use the principle of superposition to explain everyday examples of resonance (including musical instruments and the human voice).
Sound
Worksheets :3
H.P.3D.3. Develop and use models to explain what happens to the observed frequency of a sound wave when the relative positions of an observer and wave source changes (Doppler effect).
Sound
Worksheets :3
H.P.3E. Conceptual Understanding: During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3E.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohm’s law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.2. Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with current, electric potential, resistance, and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.6. Obtain and communicate information about the relationship between magnetism and electric currents to explain the role of magnets and coils of wire in microphones, speakers, generators, and motors.
Electromagnetism
The production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. Read more...iWorksheets :3
H.P.3E.7. Design a simple motor and construct an explanation of how this motor transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy and work.
Electromagnetism
The production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. Read more...iWorksheets :3
H.P.3F. Conceptual Understanding: During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3F.1. Construct scientific arguments that support the wave model of light and the particle model of light.
Light
Worksheets :3
H.P.3F.2. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).
Optics
Worksheets :3
H.P.3F.4. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems that relate the frequency, period, amplitude, wavelength, velocity, and energy of light.
Light
Worksheets :3
H.P.3F.5. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences among the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma rays) and give examples of devices or phenomena from each band.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3G. Conceptual Understanding: Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atom’s nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3G.1. Develop and use models to represent the basic structure of an atom (including protons, neutrons, electrons, and the nucleus).H.P.3G.5. Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

SC.H.E. EARTH SCIENCE

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.E.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.E.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.
Maps as Models of the Earth
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3

ASTRONOMY

H.E.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.
H.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a huge expanse of time. At the center of Earth’s solar system is one local star, the Sun. It is just one of a vast number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is just one of a vast number of galaxies in the observable universe. The study of the light spectra and brightness of stars is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. Nearly all observable matter in the universe formed and continues to form within the cores of stars. The universe began with a period of extreme and rapid expansion and has been expanding ever since. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2A.1. Construct explanations for how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way Galaxy).H.E.2A.2. Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).H.E.2A.4. Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims about the origin of the universe (including the red shift of light from distant galaxies, the measured composition of stars and nonstellar gases, and the cosmic background radiation).
H.E.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The solar system consists of the Sun and a collection of objects of varying sizes and conditions – including planets and their moons – that have predictable patterns of movement. These patterns can be explained by gravitational forces and conservation laws, and in turn explains many large-scale phenomena observed on Earth. Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the Sun. The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2B.2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties and features of the moon to support claims that it is unique among other moons in the solar system in its effects on the planet it orbits.H.E.2B.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to explain the motion of an orbiting object in the solar system.H.E.2B.4. Construct explanations for how the solar system was formed.

EARTH’S GEOSHERE

H.E.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.
H.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Evidence indicates Earth’s interior is divided into a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid (but flowing) mantle and solid crust. Although the crust is solid, it is in constant motion and is recycled through time. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a coherent account of its geological history. Weathering (physical and chemical) and soil formation are a result of the interactions of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. All forms of resource extraction and land use have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits. Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3A.1. Analyze and interpret data to explain the differentiation of Earth’s internal structure using (1) the production of internal heat from the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, (2) gravitational energy, (3) data from seismic waves, and (4) Earth’s magnetic field.
Earth's Crust
FreeWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.2. Analyze and interpret data from ocean topography, correlation of rock assemblages, the fossil record, the role of convection current, and the action at plate boundaries to explain the theory of plate tectonics.H.E.3A.3. Construct explanations of how forces cause crustal changes as evidenced in sea floor spreading, earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building using evidence of tectonic environments (such as mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones).H.E.3A.4. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze seismic graphs to (1) triangulate the location of an earthquake’s epicenter and magnitude, and (2) describe the correlation between frequency and magnitude of an earthquake.H.E.3A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks and classify each based on the properties and environment in which they were formed.
Rocks I
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Rocks II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
H.E.3A.6. Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.7. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.8. Analyze and interpret data of soil from different locations to compare the major physical components of soil (such as the amounts of sand, silt, clay, and humus) as evidence of Earth processes in that region producing each type of soil.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B. Conceptual Understanding: The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources. Human transformation of the natural environment can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3B.1. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the formation, availability, and use of ores and fossil fuels impact the environment.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B.4. Obtain and evaluate available data on a current controversy regarding human activities which may affect the frequency, intensity, or consequences of natural hazards.H.E.3B.5. Define problems caused by the impacts of locally significant natural hazards and design possible devices or solutions to reduce the impacts of such natural hazards on human activities.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

EARTH’S PALEOBIOSPHERE

H.E.4. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earth’s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of organisms.
H.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Living things have changed the makeup of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere over geological time. Organisms ranging from bacteria to human beings may contribute to the global carbon cycle. They may influence the global climate by modifying the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. As Earth changes, life on Earth adapts and evolves to those changes. Just as life influences components of the Earth System, changes in the Earth System influences life. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.4A.3. Construct explanations of how changes to Earth’s surface are related to changes in the complexity and diversity of life using evidence from the geologic time scale.H.E.4A.4. Obtain and evaluate evidence from rock and fossil records and ice core samples to support claims that Earth’s environmental conditions have changed over time.
The Science of Earth Science
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.5. Develop and use models of various dating methods (including index fossils, ordering of rock layers, and radiometric dating) to estimate geologic time.
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.6. Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate the age of Earth materials using isotope ratios (actual or simulated).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE-WEATHER AND CLIMATE

H.E.5. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.
H.E.5A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location at a particular time. Weather is primarily determined by the angle and amount (time) of sunlight. Climate is the general weather conditions over a long period of time and is influenced by many factors. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.5A.1. Develop and use models to describe the thermal structures (including the changes in air temperature due to changing altitude in the lower troposphere), the gaseous composition, and the location of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.2. Develop and use models to predict and explain how the angle of solar incidence and Earth’s axial tilt impact (1) the length of daylight, (2) the atmospheric filtration, (3) the distribution of sunlight in any location, and (4) seasonal changes.H.E.5A.3. Analyze and interpret data to predict local and national weather conditions on the basis of the relationship among the movement of air masses, pressure systems, and frontal boundaries.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.4. Analyze and interpret data of pressure differences, the direction of winds, and areas of uneven heating to explain how convection determines local wind patterns (including land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes, Chinook winds, and monsoons).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.5. Construct explanations for the formation of severe weather conditions (including tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and blizzards) using evidence from temperature, pressure and moisture conditions.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.6. Develop and use models to exemplify how climate is driven by global circulation patterns.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.8. Analyze scientific arguments regarding the nature of the relationship between human activities and climate change.

EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE

H.E.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.
H.E.6A. Conceptual Understanding: Water is an essential resource on Earth. Organisms (including humans) on Earth depend on water for life. Its unique physical and chemical properties are important to the dynamics of Earth systems. Multiple factors affect the quality, availability, and distribution of Earth’s water. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.6A.1. Analyze and interpret data to describe and compare the physical and chemical properties of saltwater and freshwater.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.2. Obtain and communicate information to explain how location, movement, and energy transfers are involved in making water available for use on Earth’s surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins, freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how a change in stream flow might affect areas of erosion and deposition of a meandering alluvial stream.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.4. Analyze and interpret data of a local drainage basin to predict how changes caused by human activity and other factors influence the hydrology of the basin and amount of water available for use in the ecosystem.H.E.6A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe how the quality of the water in drainage basins is influenced by natural and human factors (such as land use, domestic and industrial waste, weather/climate conditions, topography of the river channel, pollution, or flooding).H.E.6A.7. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the convection of ocean water due to temperature and density influence the circulation of oceans.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.8. Develop and use models to describe how waves and currents interact with the ocean shore.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3

SC.CC.RST.9-10. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RST.9-10.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
Thermodynamics
Worksheets :4

SC.H.P. PHYSICS 1

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.P.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.P.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.H.P.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
Lab Investigations
Worksheets :3

INTERACTIONS AND FORCES

H.P.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces.
H.P.2A. Conceptual Understanding: The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2A.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the object’s displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an object’s displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.4. Develop and use models to represent an object’s displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.5. Construct explanations for what is meant by “constant” velocity and “constant” acceleration (including writing descriptions of the object’s motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.6. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences between distance and displacement; speed and velocity; constant velocity and instantaneous velocity; constant velocity and average velocity; and velocity and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2B.8. Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newton’s Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.H.P.2B.10. Obtain information to communicate physical situations in which Newton’s Second Law of Motion does not apply.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C. Conceptual Understanding: The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newton’s Laws of Motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2C.1. Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C.4. Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hooke’s Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2D. Conceptual Understanding: The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2D.3. Obtain information to communicate how long-term gravitational interactions govern the evolution and maintenance of large-scale structures in the universe (such as the solar system and galaxies) and the patterns of motion within them.H.P.2D.5. Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.H.P.2D.6. Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.H.P.2D.7. Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.H.P.2D.10. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.

INTERACTIONS AND ENERGY

H.P.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of the conservation of energy.
H.P.3B. Conceptual Understanding: Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3B.2. Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = ½ mv^2, PEg = mgh, PEe = ½ kx^2).
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.3D. Conceptual Understanding: Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3D.1. Develop and use models (such as drawings) to exemplify the interaction of mechanical waves with different boundaries (sound wave interference) including the formation of standing waves and two-source interference patterns.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3E. Conceptual Understanding: During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3E.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohm’s law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.2. Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with current, electric potential, resistance, and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3F. Conceptual Understanding: During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3F.2. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).
Optics
Worksheets :3
H.P.3F.5. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences among the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma rays) and give examples of devices or phenomena from each band.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3G. Conceptual Understanding: Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atom’s nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3G.5. Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

SC.H.E. EARTH SCIENCE

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.E.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.E.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.
Maps as Models of the Earth
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3

ASTRONOMY

H.E.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.
H.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a huge expanse of time. At the center of Earth’s solar system is one local star, the Sun. It is just one of a vast number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is just one of a vast number of galaxies in the observable universe. The study of the light spectra and brightness of stars is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. Nearly all observable matter in the universe formed and continues to form within the cores of stars. The universe began with a period of extreme and rapid expansion and has been expanding ever since. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2A.1. Construct explanations for how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way Galaxy).H.E.2A.2. Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).H.E.2A.4. Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims about the origin of the universe (including the red shift of light from distant galaxies, the measured composition of stars and nonstellar gases, and the cosmic background radiation).
H.E.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The solar system consists of the Sun and a collection of objects of varying sizes and conditions – including planets and their moons – that have predictable patterns of movement. These patterns can be explained by gravitational forces and conservation laws, and in turn explains many large-scale phenomena observed on Earth. Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the Sun. The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2B.2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties and features of the moon to support claims that it is unique among other moons in the solar system in its effects on the planet it orbits.H.E.2B.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to explain the motion of an orbiting object in the solar system.H.E.2B.4. Construct explanations for how the solar system was formed.

EARTH’S GEOSHERE

H.E.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.
H.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Evidence indicates Earth’s interior is divided into a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid (but flowing) mantle and solid crust. Although the crust is solid, it is in constant motion and is recycled through time. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a coherent account of its geological history. Weathering (physical and chemical) and soil formation are a result of the interactions of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. All forms of resource extraction and land use have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits. Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3A.1. Analyze and interpret data to explain the differentiation of Earth’s internal structure using (1) the production of internal heat from the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, (2) gravitational energy, (3) data from seismic waves, and (4) Earth’s magnetic field.
Earth's Crust
FreeWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.2. Analyze and interpret data from ocean topography, correlation of rock assemblages, the fossil record, the role of convection current, and the action at plate boundaries to explain the theory of plate tectonics.H.E.3A.3. Construct explanations of how forces cause crustal changes as evidenced in sea floor spreading, earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building using evidence of tectonic environments (such as mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones).H.E.3A.4. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze seismic graphs to (1) triangulate the location of an earthquake’s epicenter and magnitude, and (2) describe the correlation between frequency and magnitude of an earthquake.H.E.3A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks and classify each based on the properties and environment in which they were formed.
Rocks I
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Rocks II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
H.E.3A.6. Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.7. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.8. Analyze and interpret data of soil from different locations to compare the major physical components of soil (such as the amounts of sand, silt, clay, and humus) as evidence of Earth processes in that region producing each type of soil.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B. Conceptual Understanding: The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources. Human transformation of the natural environment can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3B.1. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the formation, availability, and use of ores and fossil fuels impact the environment.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B.4. Obtain and evaluate available data on a current controversy regarding human activities which may affect the frequency, intensity, or consequences of natural hazards.H.E.3B.5. Define problems caused by the impacts of locally significant natural hazards and design possible devices or solutions to reduce the impacts of such natural hazards on human activities.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

EARTH’S PALEOBIOSPHERE

H.E.4. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earth’s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of organisms.
H.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Living things have changed the makeup of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere over geological time. Organisms ranging from bacteria to human beings may contribute to the global carbon cycle. They may influence the global climate by modifying the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. As Earth changes, life on Earth adapts and evolves to those changes. Just as life influences components of the Earth System, changes in the Earth System influences life. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.4A.3. Construct explanations of how changes to Earth’s surface are related to changes in the complexity and diversity of life using evidence from the geologic time scale.H.E.4A.4. Obtain and evaluate evidence from rock and fossil records and ice core samples to support claims that Earth’s environmental conditions have changed over time.
The Science of Earth Science
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.5. Develop and use models of various dating methods (including index fossils, ordering of rock layers, and radiometric dating) to estimate geologic time.
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.6. Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate the age of Earth materials using isotope ratios (actual or simulated).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE-WEATHER AND CLIMATE

H.E.5. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.
H.E.5A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location at a particular time. Weather is primarily determined by the angle and amount (time) of sunlight. Climate is the general weather conditions over a long period of time and is influenced by many factors. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.5A.1. Develop and use models to describe the thermal structures (including the changes in air temperature due to changing altitude in the lower troposphere), the gaseous composition, and the location of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.2. Develop and use models to predict and explain how the angle of solar incidence and Earth’s axial tilt impact (1) the length of daylight, (2) the atmospheric filtration, (3) the distribution of sunlight in any location, and (4) seasonal changes.H.E.5A.3. Analyze and interpret data to predict local and national weather conditions on the basis of the relationship among the movement of air masses, pressure systems, and frontal boundaries.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.4. Analyze and interpret data of pressure differences, the direction of winds, and areas of uneven heating to explain how convection determines local wind patterns (including land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes, Chinook winds, and monsoons).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.5. Construct explanations for the formation of severe weather conditions (including tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and blizzards) using evidence from temperature, pressure and moisture conditions.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.6. Develop and use models to exemplify how climate is driven by global circulation patterns.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.8. Analyze scientific arguments regarding the nature of the relationship between human activities and climate change.

EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE

H.E.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.
H.E.6A. Conceptual Understanding: Water is an essential resource on Earth. Organisms (including humans) on Earth depend on water for life. Its unique physical and chemical properties are important to the dynamics of Earth systems. Multiple factors affect the quality, availability, and distribution of Earth’s water. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.6A.1. Analyze and interpret data to describe and compare the physical and chemical properties of saltwater and freshwater.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.2. Obtain and communicate information to explain how location, movement, and energy transfers are involved in making water available for use on Earth’s surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins, freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how a change in stream flow might affect areas of erosion and deposition of a meandering alluvial stream.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.4. Analyze and interpret data of a local drainage basin to predict how changes caused by human activity and other factors influence the hydrology of the basin and amount of water available for use in the ecosystem.H.E.6A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe how the quality of the water in drainage basins is influenced by natural and human factors (such as land use, domestic and industrial waste, weather/climate conditions, topography of the river channel, pollution, or flooding).H.E.6A.7. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the convection of ocean water due to temperature and density influence the circulation of oceans.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.8. Develop and use models to describe how waves and currents interact with the ocean shore.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3

SC.H.C. CHEMISTRY 1

SCIENCES AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.C.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.C.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.H.C.1A.5. Use mathematical and computational thinking to (1) use and manipulate appropriate metric units, (2) express relationships between variables for models and investigations, and (3) use grade-level appropriate statistics to analyze data.

BONDING AND CHEMICAL FORMULAS

H.C.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structures and classification of chemical compounds.
H.C.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Elements are made up of only one kind of atom. With increasing atomic number, a predictable pattern for the addition of electrons exists. This pattern is the basis for the arrangement of elements in the periodic table. The chemical properties of an element are determined by an element’s electron configuration. Elements can react to form chemical compounds/molecules that have unique properties determined by the kinds of atoms combined to make up the compound/molecule. Essentially, the ways in which electrons are involved in bonds determines whether ionic or covalent bonds are formed. Compounds have characteristic shapes that are determined by the type and number of bonds formed. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.3A.2. Use the periodic table to write and interpret the formulas and names of chemical compounds (including binary ionic compounds, binary covalent compounds, and straight-chain alkanes up to six carbons).

CHEMICAL REACTIONS

H.C.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the types, the causes, and the effects of chemical reactions.
H.C.6A. Conceptual Understanding: A chemical reaction occurs when elements and/or compounds interact, resulting in a rearrangement of the atoms of these elements and/or compounds to produce substances with unique properties. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. Reactions tend to proceed in a direction that favors lower energies. Chemical reactions can be categorized using knowledge about the reactants to predict products. Chemical reactions are quantifiable. When stress is applied to a chemical system that is in equilibrium, the system will shift in a direction that reduces that stress. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.6A.1. Develop and use models to predict the products of chemical reactions (1) based upon movements of ions; (2) based upon movements of protons; and (3) based upon movements of electrons.
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3

THERMOCHEMISTRY AND CHEMICAL KINETICS

H.C.7. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the conservation of energy and energy transfer.
H.C.7A. Conceptual Understanding: The first law of thermodynamics states that the amount of energy in the universe is constant. An energy diagram is used to represent changes in the energy of the reactants and products in a chemical reaction. Enthalpy refers to the heat content that is present in an atom, ion, or compound. While some chemical reactions occur spontaneously, other reactions may require that activation energy be lowered in order for the reaction to occur. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.C.7A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the effects of temperature, surface area, stirring, concentration of reactants, and the presence of various catalysts on the rate of chemical reactions.
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
H.C.7A.4. Develop and use models to explain the relationships between collision frequency, the energy of collisions, the orientation of molecules, activation energy, and the rates of chemical reactions.
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3

SC.H.P. PHYSICS 1

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.P.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.P.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.H.P.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
Lab Investigations
Worksheets :3

INTERACTIONS AND FORCES

H.P.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces.
H.P.2A. Conceptual Understanding: The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2A.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the object’s displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an object’s displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.4. Develop and use models to represent an object’s displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.5. Construct explanations for what is meant by “constant” velocity and “constant” acceleration (including writing descriptions of the object’s motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.6. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences between distance and displacement; speed and velocity; constant velocity and instantaneous velocity; constant velocity and average velocity; and velocity and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2B.8. Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newton’s Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.H.P.2B.10. Obtain information to communicate physical situations in which Newton’s Second Law of Motion does not apply.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C. Conceptual Understanding: The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newton’s Laws of Motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2C.1. Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C.4. Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hooke’s Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2D. Conceptual Understanding: The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2D.3. Obtain information to communicate how long-term gravitational interactions govern the evolution and maintenance of large-scale structures in the universe (such as the solar system and galaxies) and the patterns of motion within them.H.P.2D.5. Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.H.P.2D.6. Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.H.P.2D.7. Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.H.P.2D.10. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.

INTERACTIONS AND ENERGY

H.P.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of the conservation of energy.
H.P.3B. Conceptual Understanding: Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3B.2. Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = ½ mv^2, PEg = mgh, PEe = ½ kx^2).
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.3C. Conceptual Understanding: When there is a temperature difference between two objects, an interaction occurs in the form of a transfer of thermal energy (heat) from the hotter object to the cooler object. Thermal energy is the total internal kinetic energy of the molecules and/or atoms of a system and is related to temperature, which is the average kinetic energy of the particles of a system. Energy always flows from hot too cold through the processes of conduction, convection, or radiation. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3C.2. Analyze and interpret data to describe the thermal conductivity of different materials.
H.P.3D. Conceptual Understanding: Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3D.1. Develop and use models (such as drawings) to exemplify the interaction of mechanical waves with different boundaries (sound wave interference) including the formation of standing waves and two-source interference patterns.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3E. Conceptual Understanding: During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3E.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohm’s law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.2. Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with current, electric potential, resistance, and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3F. Conceptual Understanding: During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3F.2. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).
Optics
Worksheets :3
H.P.3F.5. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences among the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma rays) and give examples of devices or phenomena from each band.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3G. Conceptual Understanding: Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atom’s nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3G.5. Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

SC.H.E. EARTH SCIENCE

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.E.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.E.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.
Maps as Models of the Earth
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
Lab investigations
Worksheets :3

ASTRONOMY

H.E.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.
H.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a huge expanse of time. At the center of Earth’s solar system is one local star, the Sun. It is just one of a vast number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is just one of a vast number of galaxies in the observable universe. The study of the light spectra and brightness of stars is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. Nearly all observable matter in the universe formed and continues to form within the cores of stars. The universe began with a period of extreme and rapid expansion and has been expanding ever since. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2A.1. Construct explanations for how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way Galaxy).H.E.2A.2. Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).H.E.2A.4. Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims about the origin of the universe (including the red shift of light from distant galaxies, the measured composition of stars and nonstellar gases, and the cosmic background radiation).
H.E.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The solar system consists of the Sun and a collection of objects of varying sizes and conditions – including planets and their moons – that have predictable patterns of movement. These patterns can be explained by gravitational forces and conservation laws, and in turn explains many large-scale phenomena observed on Earth. Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the Sun. The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2B.2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties and features of the moon to support claims that it is unique among other moons in the solar system in its effects on the planet it orbits.H.E.2B.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to explain the motion of an orbiting object in the solar system.H.E.2B.4. Construct explanations for how the solar system was formed.

EARTH’S GEOSHERE

H.E.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.
H.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Evidence indicates Earth’s interior is divided into a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid (but flowing) mantle and solid crust. Although the crust is solid, it is in constant motion and is recycled through time. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a coherent account of its geological history. Weathering (physical and chemical) and soil formation are a result of the interactions of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. All forms of resource extraction and land use have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits. Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3A.1. Analyze and interpret data to explain the differentiation of Earth’s internal structure using (1) the production of internal heat from the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, (2) gravitational energy, (3) data from seismic waves, and (4) Earth’s magnetic field.
Earth's Crust
FreeWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.2. Analyze and interpret data from ocean topography, correlation of rock assemblages, the fossil record, the role of convection current, and the action at plate boundaries to explain the theory of plate tectonics.H.E.3A.3. Construct explanations of how forces cause crustal changes as evidenced in sea floor spreading, earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building using evidence of tectonic environments (such as mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones).H.E.3A.4. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze seismic graphs to (1) triangulate the location of an earthquake’s epicenter and magnitude, and (2) describe the correlation between frequency and magnitude of an earthquake.H.E.3A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks and classify each based on the properties and environment in which they were formed.
Rocks I
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Rocks II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
H.E.3A.6. Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.7. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.8. Analyze and interpret data of soil from different locations to compare the major physical components of soil (such as the amounts of sand, silt, clay, and humus) as evidence of Earth processes in that region producing each type of soil.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B. Conceptual Understanding: The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources. Human transformation of the natural environment can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3B.1. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the formation, availability, and use of ores and fossil fuels impact the environment.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B.4. Obtain and evaluate available data on a current controversy regarding human activities which may affect the frequency, intensity, or consequences of natural hazards.H.E.3B.5. Define problems caused by the impacts of locally significant natural hazards and design possible devices or solutions to reduce the impacts of such natural hazards on human activities.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

EARTH’S PALEOBIOSPHERE

H.E.4. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earth’s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of organisms.
H.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Living things have changed the makeup of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere over geological time. Organisms ranging from bacteria to human beings may contribute to the global carbon cycle. They may influence the global climate by modifying the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. As Earth changes, life on Earth adapts and evolves to those changes. Just as life influences components of the Earth System, changes in the Earth System influences life. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.4A.3. Construct explanations of how changes to Earth’s surface are related to changes in the complexity and diversity of life using evidence from the geologic time scale.H.E.4A.4. Obtain and evaluate evidence from rock and fossil records and ice core samples to support claims that Earth’s environmental conditions have changed over time.
The Science of Earth Science
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.5. Develop and use models of various dating methods (including index fossils, ordering of rock layers, and radiometric dating) to estimate geologic time.
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.6. Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate the age of Earth materials using isotope ratios (actual or simulated).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE-WEATHER AND CLIMATE

H.E.5. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.
H.E.5A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location at a particular time. Weather is primarily determined by the angle and amount (time) of sunlight. Climate is the general weather conditions over a long period of time and is influenced by many factors. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.5A.1. Develop and use models to describe the thermal structures (including the changes in air temperature due to changing altitude in the lower troposphere), the gaseous composition, and the location of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.2. Develop and use models to predict and explain how the angle of solar incidence and Earth’s axial tilt impact (1) the length of daylight, (2) the atmospheric filtration, (3) the distribution of sunlight in any location, and (4) seasonal changes.H.E.5A.3. Analyze and interpret data to predict local and national weather conditions on the basis of the relationship among the movement of air masses, pressure systems, and frontal boundaries.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.4. Analyze and interpret data of pressure differences, the direction of winds, and areas of uneven heating to explain how convection determines local wind patterns (including land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes, Chinook winds, and monsoons).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.5. Construct explanations for the formation of severe weather conditions (including tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and blizzards) using evidence from temperature, pressure and moisture conditions.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.6. Develop and use models to exemplify how climate is driven by global circulation patterns.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.8. Analyze scientific arguments regarding the nature of the relationship between human activities and climate change.

EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE

H.E.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.
H.E.6A. Conceptual Understanding: Water is an essential resource on Earth. Organisms (including humans) on Earth depend on water for life. Its unique physical and chemical properties are important to the dynamics of Earth systems. Multiple factors affect the quality, availability, and distribution of Earth’s water. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.6A.1. Analyze and interpret data to describe and compare the physical and chemical properties of saltwater and freshwater.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.2. Obtain and communicate information to explain how location, movement, and energy transfers are involved in making water available for use on Earth’s surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins, freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how a change in stream flow might affect areas of erosion and deposition of a meandering alluvial stream.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.4. Analyze and interpret data of a local drainage basin to predict how changes caused by human activity and other factors influence the hydrology of the basin and amount of water available for use in the ecosystem.H.E.6A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe how the quality of the water in drainage basins is influenced by natural and human factors (such as land use, domestic and industrial waste, weather/climate conditions, topography of the river channel, pollution, or flooding).H.E.6A.7. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the convection of ocean water due to temperature and density influence the circulation of oceans.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.8. Develop and use models to describe how waves and currents interact with the ocean shore.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3

SC.CC.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.

SC.H.P. PHYSICS 1

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.P.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.P.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.H.P.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
Lab Investigations
Worksheets :3

INTERACTIONS AND FORCES

H.P.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted using the concept of forces.
H.P.2A. Conceptual Understanding: The linear motion of an object can be described by its displacement, velocity, and acceleration. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2A.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations on the straight-line motion of an object to include an interpretation of the object’s displacement, time of motion, constant velocity, average velocity, and constant acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply formulas related to an object’s displacement, constant velocity, average velocity and constant acceleration. Interpret the meaning of the sign of displacement, velocity, and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.4. Develop and use models to represent an object’s displacement, velocity, and acceleration (including vector diagrams, data tables, motion graphs, dot motion diagrams, and mathematical formulas).
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.5. Construct explanations for what is meant by “constant” velocity and “constant” acceleration (including writing descriptions of the object’s motion and calculating the sign and magnitude of the slope of the line on a position-time and velocity-time graph).
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2A.6. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences between distance and displacement; speed and velocity; constant velocity and instantaneous velocity; constant velocity and average velocity; and velocity and acceleration.
Laws of Motion - Set II
Worksheets :3
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2B.8. Develop and use models (such as a computer simulation, drawing, or demonstration) and Newton’s Second Law of Motion to construct explanations for why an object moving at a constant speed in a circle is accelerating.H.P.2B.10. Obtain information to communicate physical situations in which Newton’s Second Law of Motion does not apply.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C. Conceptual Understanding: The contact interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the normal, tension, applied, and frictional forces acting on the objects and by applying Newton’s Laws of Motion. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2C.1. Use a free-body diagram to represent the normal, tension (or elastic), applied, and frictional forces on an object.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2C.4. Analyze and interpret data on force and displacement to determine the spring (or elastic) constant of an elastic material (Hooke’s Law, F=-kx), including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield the spring constant, k.
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.2D. Conceptual Understanding: The non-contact (at a distance) interactions among objects and their subsequent motion can be explained and predicted by analyzing the gravitational, electric, and magnetic forces acting on the objects and applying Newton’s laws of motion. These non-contact forces can be represented as fields. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.2D.3. Obtain information to communicate how long-term gravitational interactions govern the evolution and maintenance of large-scale structures in the universe (such as the solar system and galaxies) and the patterns of motion within them.H.P.2D.5. Construct explanations for how the non-contact forces of gravity, electricity, and magnetism can be modeled as fields by sketching field diagrams for two given charges, two massive objects, or a bar magnet and use these diagrams to qualitatively interpret the direction and magnitude of the force at a particular location in the field.H.P.2D.6. Use a free-body diagram to represent the gravitational force on an object.H.P.2D.7. Use a free-body diagram to represent the electrical force on a charge.H.P.2D.10. Use mathematical and computational thinking to apply Fnet = ma to analyze problems involving non-contact interactions, including objects in free fall.

INTERACTIONS AND ENERGY

H.P.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of how the interactions among objects can be explained and predicted using the concept of the conservation of energy.
H.P.3B. Conceptual Understanding: Mechanical energy refers to a combination of motion (kinetic energy) and stored energy (potential energy). When only conservative forces act on an object and when no mass is converted to energy, mechanical energy is conserved. Gravitational and electrical potential energy can be modeled as energy stored in the fields created by massive objects or charged particles. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3B.2. Use mathematical and computational thinking to argue the validity of the conservation of mechanical energy in simple systems and those with periodic motion and on which only conservative forces act (KE = ½ mv^2, PEg = mgh, PEe = ½ kx^2).
Forces - Set I
Worksheets :4
H.P.3D. Conceptual Understanding: Sound is a mechanical, longitudinal wave that is the result of vibrations (kinetic energy) that transfer energy through a medium. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3D.1. Develop and use models (such as drawings) to exemplify the interaction of mechanical waves with different boundaries (sound wave interference) including the formation of standing waves and two-source interference patterns.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3E. Conceptual Understanding: During electric circuit interactions, electrical energy (energy stored in a battery or energy transmitted by a current) is transformed into other forms of energy and transferred to circuit devices and the surroundings. Charged particles and magnets create fields that store energy. Magnetic fields exert forces on moving charged particles. Changing magnetic fields cause electrons in wires to move, creating current. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3E.1. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the relationship between the current and potential drop (voltage) across an Ohmic resistor. Analyze and interpret data to verify Ohm’s law, including constructing an appropriate graph in order to draw a line-of-best-fit whose calculated slope will yield R, the resistance of the resistor.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.2. Develop and use models (such as circuit drawings and mathematical representations) to explain how an electric circuit works by tracing the path of the electrons and including concepts of energy transformation, transfer, and the conservation of energy and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3E.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze problems dealing with current, electric potential, resistance, and electric charge.
Electric Circuits
Worksheets :4
H.P.3F. Conceptual Understanding: During radiant energy interactions, energy can be transferred over long distances without a medium. Radiation can be modeled as an electromagnetic wave or as a stream of discrete packets of energy (photons); all radiation travels at the same speed in a vacuum (speed of light). This electromagnetic radiation is a major source of energy for life on Earth. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3F.2. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the interaction between the visible light portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and various objects (including mirrors, lenses, barriers with two slits, and diffraction gratings) and to construct explanations of the behavior of light (reflection, refraction, transmission, interference) in these instances using models (including ray diagrams).
Optics
Worksheets :3
H.P.3F.5. Obtain information to communicate the similarities and differences among the different bands of the electromagnetic spectrum (including radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, and gamma rays) and give examples of devices or phenomena from each band.
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets :4
H.P.3G. Conceptual Understanding: Nuclear energy is energy stored in an atom’s nucleus; this energy holds the atom together and is called binding energy. Binding energy is a reflection of the equivalence of mass and energy; the mass of any nucleus is always less than the sum of the masses of the individual constituent nucleons that comprise it. Binding energy is also a measure of the strong nuclear force that exists in the nucleus and is responsible for overcoming the repulsive forces among protons. The strong and weak nuclear forces, gravity, and the electromagnetic force are the fundamental forces in nature. Strong and weak nuclear forces determine nuclear sizes, stability, and rates of radioactive decay. At the subatomic scale, the conservation of energy becomes the conservation of mass-energy. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.P.3G.5. Obtain information to communicate how radioactive decay processes have practical applications (such as food preservation, cancer treatments, fossil and rock dating, and as radioisotopic medical tracers).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

SC.H.E. EARTH SCIENCE

SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING PRACTICES

H.E.1. The student will use the science and engineering practices, including the processes and skills of scientific inquiry, to develop understandings of science content.
H.E.1A. Conceptual Understanding: The practices of science and engineering support the development of science concepts, develop the habits of mind that are necessary for scientific thinking, and allow students to engage in science in ways that are similar to those used by scientists and engineers. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.1A.2. Develop, use, and refine models to (1) understand or represent phenomena, processes, and relationships, (2) test devices or solutions, or (3) communicate ideas to others.
Maps as Models of the Earth
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.1A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to answer questions, test hypotheses, and develop explanations: (1) formulate scientific questions and testable hypotheses based on credible scientific information, (2) identify materials, procedures, and variables, (3) use appropriate laboratory equipment, technology, and techniques to collect qualitative and quantitative data, and (4) record and represent data in an appropriate form. Use appropriate safety procedures.
Lab investigations
Worksheets :3

ASTRONOMY

H.E.2. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the structure, properties, and history of the observable universe.
H.E.2A. Conceptual Understanding: Earth is a tiny part of a vast universe that has developed over a huge expanse of time. At the center of Earth’s solar system is one local star, the Sun. It is just one of a vast number of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy, which is just one of a vast number of galaxies in the observable universe. The study of the light spectra and brightness of stars is used to identify compositional elements of stars, their movements, and their distances from Earth. Nearly all observable matter in the universe formed and continues to form within the cores of stars. The universe began with a period of extreme and rapid expansion and has been expanding ever since. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2A.1. Construct explanations for how gravity and motion affect the formation and shapes of galaxies (including the Milky Way Galaxy).H.E.2A.2. Use the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram to classify stars and explain the life cycles of stars (including the Sun).H.E.2A.4. Construct and analyze scientific arguments to support claims about the origin of the universe (including the red shift of light from distant galaxies, the measured composition of stars and nonstellar gases, and the cosmic background radiation).
H.E.2B. Conceptual Understanding: The solar system consists of the Sun and a collection of objects of varying sizes and conditions – including planets and their moons – that have predictable patterns of movement. These patterns can be explained by gravitational forces and conservation laws, and in turn explains many large-scale phenomena observed on Earth. Kepler’s laws describe common features of the motions of orbiting objects, including their elliptical paths around the Sun. The solar system appears to have formed from a disk of dust and gas, drawn together by gravity. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.2B.2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties and features of the moon to support claims that it is unique among other moons in the solar system in its effects on the planet it orbits.H.E.2B.3. Use mathematical and computational thinking to explain the motion of an orbiting object in the solar system.H.E.2B.4. Construct explanations for how the solar system was formed.

EARTH’S GEOSHERE

H.E.3. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the internal and external dynamics of Earth’s geosphere.
H.E.3A. Conceptual Understanding: Evidence indicates Earth’s interior is divided into a solid inner core, a liquid outer core, a solid (but flowing) mantle and solid crust. Although the crust is solid, it is in constant motion and is recycled through time. Plate tectonics is the unifying theory that explains the past and current movements of the rocks at Earth’s surface and provides a coherent account of its geological history. Weathering (physical and chemical) and soil formation are a result of the interactions of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. All forms of resource extraction and land use have associated economic, social, environmental, and geopolitical costs, risks, and benefits. Natural hazards and other geological events have shaped the course of human history. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3A.1. Analyze and interpret data to explain the differentiation of Earth’s internal structure using (1) the production of internal heat from the radioactive decay of unstable isotopes, (2) gravitational energy, (3) data from seismic waves, and (4) Earth’s magnetic field.
Earth's Crust
FreeWorksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.2. Analyze and interpret data from ocean topography, correlation of rock assemblages, the fossil record, the role of convection current, and the action at plate boundaries to explain the theory of plate tectonics.H.E.3A.3. Construct explanations of how forces cause crustal changes as evidenced in sea floor spreading, earthquake activity, volcanic eruptions, and mountain building using evidence of tectonic environments (such as mid-ocean ridges and subduction zones).H.E.3A.4. Use mathematical and computational thinking to analyze seismic graphs to (1) triangulate the location of an earthquake’s epicenter and magnitude, and (2) describe the correlation between frequency and magnitude of an earthquake.H.E.3A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe the physical and chemical properties of minerals and rocks and classify each based on the properties and environment in which they were formed.
Rocks I
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Rocks II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
H.E.3A.6. Develop and use models to explain how various rock formations on the surface of Earth result from geologic processes (including weathering, erosion, deposition, and glaciation).
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.7. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine the factors that affect the rate of weathering.
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3A.8. Analyze and interpret data of soil from different locations to compare the major physical components of soil (such as the amounts of sand, silt, clay, and humus) as evidence of Earth processes in that region producing each type of soil.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B. Conceptual Understanding: The sustainability of human societies and the biodiversity that supports them requires responsible management of natural resources. Human transformation of the natural environment can contribute to the frequency and intensity of some natural hazards. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.3B.1. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the formation, availability, and use of ores and fossil fuels impact the environment.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.3B.4. Obtain and evaluate available data on a current controversy regarding human activities which may affect the frequency, intensity, or consequences of natural hazards.H.E.3B.5. Define problems caused by the impacts of locally significant natural hazards and design possible devices or solutions to reduce the impacts of such natural hazards on human activities.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

EARTH’S PALEOBIOSPHERE

H.E.4. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamic relationship between Earth’s conditions over geologic time and the diversity of organisms.
H.E.4A. Conceptual Understanding: Living things have changed the makeup of Earth’s geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere over geological time. Organisms ranging from bacteria to human beings may contribute to the global carbon cycle. They may influence the global climate by modifying the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. As Earth changes, life on Earth adapts and evolves to those changes. Just as life influences components of the Earth System, changes in the Earth System influences life. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.4A.3. Construct explanations of how changes to Earth’s surface are related to changes in the complexity and diversity of life using evidence from the geologic time scale.H.E.4A.4. Obtain and evaluate evidence from rock and fossil records and ice core samples to support claims that Earth’s environmental conditions have changed over time.
The Science of Earth Science
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.5. Develop and use models of various dating methods (including index fossils, ordering of rock layers, and radiometric dating) to estimate geologic time.
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
H.E.4A.6. Use mathematical and computational thinking to calculate the age of Earth materials using isotope ratios (actual or simulated).
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE-WEATHER AND CLIMATE

H.E.5. The student will demonstrate an understanding of the dynamics of Earth’s atmosphere.
H.E.5A. Conceptual Understanding: Weather is the condition of the atmosphere at a particular location at a particular time. Weather is primarily determined by the angle and amount (time) of sunlight. Climate is the general weather conditions over a long period of time and is influenced by many factors. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.5A.1. Develop and use models to describe the thermal structures (including the changes in air temperature due to changing altitude in the lower troposphere), the gaseous composition, and the location of the layers of Earth’s atmosphere.
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.2. Develop and use models to predict and explain how the angle of solar incidence and Earth’s axial tilt impact (1) the length of daylight, (2) the atmospheric filtration, (3) the distribution of sunlight in any location, and (4) seasonal changes.H.E.5A.3. Analyze and interpret data to predict local and national weather conditions on the basis of the relationship among the movement of air masses, pressure systems, and frontal boundaries.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.4. Analyze and interpret data of pressure differences, the direction of winds, and areas of uneven heating to explain how convection determines local wind patterns (including land/sea breezes, mountain/valley breezes, Chinook winds, and monsoons).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.5. Construct explanations for the formation of severe weather conditions (including tornadoes, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and blizzards) using evidence from temperature, pressure and moisture conditions.
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.6. Develop and use models to exemplify how climate is driven by global circulation patterns.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.5A.8. Analyze scientific arguments regarding the nature of the relationship between human activities and climate change.

EARTH’S HYDROSPHERE

H.E.6. The student will demonstrate an understanding of Earth’s freshwater and ocean systems.
H.E.6A. Conceptual Understanding: Water is an essential resource on Earth. Organisms (including humans) on Earth depend on water for life. Its unique physical and chemical properties are important to the dynamics of Earth systems. Multiple factors affect the quality, availability, and distribution of Earth’s water. Students who demonstrate this understanding can:
H.E.6A.1. Analyze and interpret data to describe and compare the physical and chemical properties of saltwater and freshwater.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.2. Obtain and communicate information to explain how location, movement, and energy transfers are involved in making water available for use on Earth’s surface (including lakes, surface-water drainage basins, freshwater wetlands, and groundwater zones).
Weather I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.3. Plan and conduct controlled scientific investigations to determine how a change in stream flow might affect areas of erosion and deposition of a meandering alluvial stream.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.4. Analyze and interpret data of a local drainage basin to predict how changes caused by human activity and other factors influence the hydrology of the basin and amount of water available for use in the ecosystem.H.E.6A.5. Analyze and interpret data to describe how the quality of the water in drainage basins is influenced by natural and human factors (such as land use, domestic and industrial waste, weather/climate conditions, topography of the river channel, pollution, or flooding).H.E.6A.7. Obtain and communicate information to explain how the convection of ocean water due to temperature and density influence the circulation of oceans.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
H.E.6A.8. Develop and use models to describe how waves and currents interact with the ocean shore.
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Standards

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