Missouri Learning Standards for High School Physics

Atomic and Nuclear Physics
FreeWorksheets: 4
Electric Circuits
Worksheets: 4
Forces and Motion
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 2
Lab Investigations
Worksheets: 3
Light and Optics
Worksheets: 4Vocabulary Sets: 3
Measurements and Calculations
Worksheets: 3
Mechanics
Worksheets: 3
Modern Electronics
Worksheets: 3
Optics
Worksheets: 3
Properties of Matter
Worksheets: 4
Sound
Worksheets: 3
The Science of Physics
Worksheets: 4
Vibrations and Waves
Vibration is the analogous motion of the particles of a mass of air or the like, whose state of equilibrium has been disturbed, as in transmitting sound. Read more...iWorksheets: 4

MO.9-12.PS. Physical Sciences

9-12.PS1. Matter and Its Interactions

9-12.PS1.A. Structure and Properties of Matter
9-12.PS1.A.1. Use the organization of the periodic table to predict the relative properties of elements based on the patterns of electrons in the outermost energy level of atoms. [Clarification Statement: Examples of properties that could be predicted from patterns could include reactivity of metals, types of bonds formed, numbers of bonds formed, and reactions with oxygen.]
9-12.PS1.A.2. Construct and revise an explanation for the products of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [Clarification Statement: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, or of oxygen and hydrogen.]
Chemical Equations
Worksheets :3
9-12.PS1.A.3. Plan and conduct an investigation to gather evidence to compare physical and chemical properties of substances such as melting point, boiling point, vapor pressure, surface tension, and chemical reactivity to infer the relative strength of attractive forces between particles. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on understanding the relative strengths of forces between particles. Examples of particles could include ions, atoms, molecules, and networked materials (such as graphite).
Elements - Set I
Worksheets :3
Elements - Set II
Worksheets :3
Heat
Worksheets :3
9-12.PS1.A.4. Apply the concepts of bonding and crystalline/molecular structure to explain the macroscopic properties of various categories of structural materials, i.e. metals, ionic (ceramics), and polymers. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the attractive and repulsive forces that determine the functioning of the material. Examples could include why electrically conductive materials are often made of metal, flexible but durable materials are made up of long chained molecules, and pharmaceuticals are designed to interact with specific receptors.]
9-12.PS1.A.5. Develop a model to illustrate that the release or absorption of energy from a chemical reaction system depends upon the changes in total bond energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the idea that a chemical reaction is a system that affects the energy change. Examples of models could include molecular-level drawings and diagrams of reactions, graphs showing the relative energies of reactants and products, and representations showing energy is conserved.]
Kinetics and Equilibrium
Worksheets :3
Thermodynamics
Worksheets :4
9-12.PS1.B. Chemical reactions
9-12.PS1.B.2. Refine the design of a chemical system by specifying a change in conditions that would alter the amount of products at equilibrium. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the application of Le Chatelier’s Principle and on refining designs of chemical reaction systems, including descriptions of the connection between changes made at the macroscopic level and what happens at the molecular level. Examples of designs could include different ways to increase product formation including adding reactants or removing products.]
9-12.PS1.B.3. Use symbolic representations and mathematical calculations to support the claim that atoms, and therefore mass, are conserved during a chemical reaction. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conservation of matter and mass through balanced chemical equations, use of the mole concept and proportional relationships.]
Chemical Equations
Worksheets :3

9-12.PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

9-12.PS2.A. Forces and Motion
9-12.PS2.A.1. Analyze data to support and verify the concepts expressed by Newton's 2nd law of motion, as it describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.]
9-12.PS2.A.3. Apply scientific principles of motion and momentum to design, evaluate, and refine a device that minimizes the force on a macroscopic object during a collision. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evaluation and refinement could include determining the success of the device at protecting an object from damage and modifying the design to improve it. Examples of a device could include a football helmet or a parachute.]

9-12.PS3. Energy

9-12.PS3.A. Definitions of Energy
9-12.PS3.A.1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the changes in energy are known. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model.]
Heat
Worksheets :3
9-12.PS3.A.2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects). [Clarification Statement: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, the energy stored due to position of an object above the earth, and the energy stored between two electrically-charged plates. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.]
9-12.PS3.A.3. Design, build, and refine a device that works within given constraints to convert one form of energy into another form of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both qualitative and quantitative evaluations of devices. Examples of devices could include Rube Goldberg devices, wind turbines, solar cells, solar ovens, and generators. Examples of constraints could include use of renewable energy forms and efficiency.]
States of Matter
Worksheets :3
Electromagnetism
The production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9-12.PS3.B. Conservation of Energy and Energy Transfer
9-12.PS3.B.1. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that the transfer of thermal energy when two components of different temperature are combined within a closed system results in a more uniform energy distribution among the components in the system (second law of thermodynamics). [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on analyzing data from student investigations and using mathematical thinking to describe the energy changes both quantitatively and conceptually. Examples of investigations could include mixing liquids at different initial temperatures or adding objects at different temperatures to water.]
Thermodynamics
Worksheets :4
9-12.PS3.C. Relationship Between Energy and Forces
9-12.PS3.C.1. Develop and use a model of two objects interacting through electric or magnetic fields to illustrate the forces between objects and the changes in energy of the objects due to the interaction. [Clarification Statement: Examples of models could include drawings, diagrams, and texts, such as drawings of what happens when two charges of opposite polarity are near each other.]
Magnetism
Worksheets :3
Electromagnetism
The production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. Read more...iWorksheets :3

9-12.PS4. Waves and Their Applications in Technologies for Information Transfer

9-12.PS4.A. Wave Properties
9-12.PS4.A.1. Use mathematical representations to support a claim regarding relationships among the frequency, wavelength, and speed of waves traveling in various media. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include electromagnetic radiation traveling in a vacuum and glass, sound waves traveling through air and water, and seismic waves traveling through the Earth.]
Light
Worksheets :3
9-12.PS4.A.2. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning behind the idea that electromagnetic radiation can be described either by a wave model or a particle model, and that for some situations one model is more useful than the other. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the experimental evidence supports the claim and how a theory is generally modified in light of new evidence. Examples of a phenomenon could include resonance, interference, diffraction, and photoelectric effect.]
Light
Worksheets :3

MO.9-12.LS. Life Sciences

9-12.LS1. From Molecules to Organisms: Structure and Processes

9-12.LS1.A. Structure and Function
9-12.LS1.A.1. Construct a model of how the structure of DNA determines the structure of proteins which carry out the essential functions of life through systems of specialized cells. [Clarification Statement: Genes are the regions in DNA that code for proteins. Basic transcription and translation explain the roles of DNA and RNA in coding the instructions for making polypeptides.]
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.LS1.A.2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide specific functions within multicellular organisms. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on functions at the organism system level such as nutrient uptake, water delivery, and organism movement in response to stimuli.]
Human biology I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :7
Human biology II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :7
9-12.LS1.A.3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis. [Clarification Statement: Examples of investigations could include heart rate response to exercise, stomata response to moisture and temperature, and root development in response to water levels.]
Human biology I
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :7
Human biology II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :7
9-12.LS1.B. Growth and Development of Organisms
9-12.LS1.B.1. Develop and use models to communicate the role of mitosis, cellular division, and differentiation in producing and maintaining complex organisms. [Clarification Statement: Major events of the cell cycle include cell growth, DNA replication, preparation for division, separation of chromosomes, and separation of cell contents.]
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9-12.LS1.C. Organization for Matter and Energy Flow in Organisms
9-12.LS1.C.1. Use a model to demonstrate how photosynthesis transforms light energy into stored chemical energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on illustrating inputs and outputs of matter and the transfer and transformation of energy in photosynthesis by plants and other photosynthesizing organisms. Examples of models could include diagrams, chemical equations, and conceptual models.]
Photosynthesis and respiration
Photosynthesis may be thought of as a chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil plus solar energy combine to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. What is similarity between human skeletal muscles and some bacteria? Match each Photosynthesis ad respiration term to its definition like Glucose, Chloroplast, Organelle, Guard Cells and many more. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9-12.LS1.C.2. Use a model to demonstrate that cellular respiration is a chemical process whereby the bonds of molecules are broken and the bonds in new compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conceptual understanding of the inputs and outputs of the process of cellular respiration.]
Cell processes
FreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7

9-12.LS2. Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and Dynamics

9-12.LS2.B. Cycles of matter and Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
9-12.LS2.B.1. Construct and revise an explanation based on evidence that the processes of photosynthesis, chemosynthesis, and aerobic and anaerobic respiration are responsible for the cycling of matter and flow of energy through ecosystems and that environmental conditions restrict which reactions can occur. [Clarification Statement: Examples of environmental conditions can include the availability of sunlight or oxygen.]
Cell processes
FreeCellular metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life. Living organisms are unique in that they can extract energy from their environments and use it to carry out activities such as growth, development, and reproduction. Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :7
Photosynthesis and respiration
Photosynthesis may be thought of as a chemical reaction in which carbon dioxide from the air and water from the soil plus solar energy combine to produce carbohydrate and oxygen. What is similarity between human skeletal muscles and some bacteria? Match each Photosynthesis ad respiration term to its definition like Glucose, Chloroplast, Organelle, Guard Cells and many more. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9-12.LS2.B.2. Communicate the pattern of the cycling of matter and the flow of energy among trophic levels in an ecosystem. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using a model of stored energy in biomass to describe the transfer of energy from one tropic level to another. Emphasis is on atoms and molecules as they move through an ecosystem.]
Ecology I
Match each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
Ecology II
Match each Ecology term to its definition like Trophic level, Food web, Consumer, Energy, Herbivore and more. Which component is not recycled in an ecosystem? Why Vultures, which are classified as scavengers, are an important part of an ecosystem? Which characteristic does creeping vine that is parasitic on other plants shares with all other heterotrophs? Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2
9-12.LS2.B.3. Use a model that illustrates the roles of photosynthesis, cellular respiration, decomposition, and combustion to explain the cycling of carbon in its various forms among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and geosphere. [Clarification Statement: The primary forms of carbon include carbon dioxide, hydrocarbons, waste, and biomass. Examples of models could include simulations and mathematical and conceptual models.]
Ecology I
Match each ecology term to its definition like Energy pyramid, Decomposer, Carnivore, Ecosystem, Owl pellet, Omnivore and many more. Which human activity would be more likely to have a positive/negative impact on the environment? Which factor determines the type of terrestrial plants that grow in an area? Which energy transfer is least likely to be found in nature? Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :2
Ecology II
Match each Ecology term to its definition like Trophic level, Food web, Consumer, Energy, Herbivore and more. Which component is not recycled in an ecosystem? Why Vultures, which are classified as scavengers, are an important part of an ecosystem? Which characteristic does creeping vine that is parasitic on other plants shares with all other heterotrophs? Read more...iWorksheets :3Vocabulary :2

9-12.LS3. Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits

9-12.LS3.A. Inheritance of Traits
9-12.LS3.A.1. Develop and use models to clarify relationships about how DNA in the form of chromosomes is passed from parents to offspring through the processes of meiosis and fertilization in sexual reproduction.
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
9-12.LS3.B. Variation of Traits
9-12.LS3.B.2. Develop and use a model to describe why structural changes to genes (mutations) located on chromosomes may affect proteins and may result in harmful, beneficial, or neutral effects to the structure and function of the organism. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on conceptual understanding that changes in genetic material may result in making different proteins.]
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.LS3.B.3. Make and defend a claim that inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) mutations occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by environmental factors. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to support arguments for the way variation occurs.]
Cell Reproduction
The process where one cell forms two identical daughter cells. Mitosis is how somatic—or non-reproductive cells—divide. Meiosis is cell division that creates sex cells, like female egg cells or male sperm cells. Meiosis has two cycles of cell division, called Meiosis I and Meiosis II. Read more...iWorksheets :4
Nucleic acids and protein synthesis
The term nucleic acid is the name for DNA and RNA. They are composed of nucleotides. DNA molecules are double-stranded and RNA molecules are single-stranded. To initiate the process of information transfer, one strand of the double-stranded DNA chain serves as a template for the synthesis of a single strand of RNA that is complementary to the DNA strand. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.LS3.B.4. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a population. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the use of mathematics (Punnett Squares) to describe the probability of traits as it relates to genetic and environmental factors in the expression of traits.]
Genetics and heredity I
How many chromosomes would normally be contained in a gamete? Match each Genetics and heredity term to its definition like Genetic code, Crossing-over, Fertilization, Codon, Dominant allele, Ribosomes, Sex cells, Punnett square, Prophase II. Read more...iWorksheets :4Vocabulary :7

9-12.LS4. Biological Evolution; Unity and Diversity

9-12.LS4.B. Natural Selection
9-12.LS4.B.1. Construct an explanation based on evidence that the process of evolution primarily results from four factors: (1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in the environment. (Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using evidence to explain the influence each of the four factors has on number of organisms, behaviors, morphology, or physiology in terms of ability to compete for limited resources and subsequent survival of individuals and adaptation of species. Examples of evidence could include mathematical models such as simple distribution graphs and proportional reasoning.)
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3
9-12.LS4.C. Adaptation
9-12.LS4.C.1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using data to provide evidence for how specific biotic and abiotic differences in ecosystems (such as ranges of seasonal temperature, long-term climate change, acidity, light, geographic barriers, or evolution of other organisms) contribute to a change in gene frequency over time, leading to adaptation of populations.]
Evolution and classification
Categorize organisms using a hierarchical classification system based on similarities and differences. Evolutionary theory is a scientific explanation for the unity and diversity of life. Analyze the effects of evolutionary mechanisms, including genetic drift, gene flow, mutation and recombination. Read more...iWorksheets :3

MO.9-12.ESS. Earth and Space Sciences

9-12.ESS1. Earth's Place in the Universe

9-12.ESS1.A. The Universe and its Stars
9-12.ESS1.A.1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the Sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the Sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”).]
9-12.ESS1.A.2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
9-12.ESS1.B. Earth and the Solar System
9-12.ESS1.B.1. Use Kepler’s Law to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.]
9-12.ESS1.C. The History of Planet Earth
9-12.ESS1.C.1. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust, the theory of plate tectonics, and relative densities of oceanic and continental rocks to explain why continental rocks are generally much older than rocks of the ocean floor. [Clarification Statement: Examples include the ages of oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust increasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
9-12.ESS1.C.2. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The History of Earth
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

9-12.ESS2. Earth's Systems

9-12.ESS2.A. Earth Materials and Systems
9-12.ESS2.A.1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s interior and surface processes (constructive and destructive) operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).]
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.A.3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one-dimensional model of Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure laboratory experiments.
9-12.ESS2.A.4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.C. The Role of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
9-12.ESS2.C.1. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide the evidence for connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, or ice wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids).]
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.E. Biogeology
9-12.ESS2.E.1. Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the dynamic causes, effects, and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth’s other systems, whereby geoscience factors control the evolution of life, which in turn continuously alters Earth’s surface. Examples of coevolution include how photosynthetic life altered the atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the evolution of land plants; or how the evolution of corals created reefs that altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided habitats for new life.]

9-12.ESS3. Earth and Human Activity

9-12.ESS3.A. Natural Resources
9-12.ESS3.A.1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to fresh water, regions of fertile soils such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass wasting and soil erosion), and severe weather. Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.A.2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on economic, social, and environmental cost-benefit ratios. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conservation, recycling, and reuse of resources (such as minerals and metals) where possible, and on minimizing impacts where it is not. Examples include developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining (for coal, tar sands, and oil shale), and pumping (for petroleum and natural gas). Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen.]
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9-12.ESS3.C. Human Impacts on Earth's Systems
9-12.ESS3.C.1. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural resources include costs of resource extraction and waste management, per-capita consumption, and the development of new technologies. Examples of factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels of conservation, and urban planning.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.C.2. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems in order to restore stability and or biodiversity of the ecosystem as well as prevent their reoccurrences. [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities could include forest fires, acid rain, flooding, urban development, pollution, deforestation, and introduction of an invasive species.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.D. Global Climate Change
9-12.ESS3.D.1. Analyze geoscientific data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).]
9-12.ESS3.D.2. Predict how human activity affects the relationships between Earth systems in both positive and negative ways. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MO.RST.9-10. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.9-10.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 9-10 texts and topics.

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RST.9-10.7. Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visually or mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words.
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3

MO.9-12.PS. Physical Sciences

9-12.PS1. Matter and Its Interactions

9-12.PS1.A. Structure and Properties of Matter
9-12.PS1.A.2. Construct and revise an explanation for the products of a simple chemical reaction based on the outermost electron states of atoms, trends in the periodic table, and knowledge of the patterns of chemical properties. [Clarification Statement: Examples of chemical reactions could include the reaction of sodium and chlorine, or of oxygen and hydrogen.]
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
9-12.PS1.B. Chemical reactions
9-12.PS1.B.1. Apply scientific principles and evidence to provide an explanation about the effects of changing the temperature or concentration of the reacting particles on the rate at which a reaction occurs. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on student reasoning that focuses on the number and energy of collisions between molecules.]
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3

9-12.PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

9-12.PS2.A. Forces and Motion
9-12.PS2.A.1. Analyze data to support and verify the concepts expressed by Newton's 2nd law of motion, as it describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.]

9-12.PS3. Energy

9-12.PS3.A. Definitions of Energy
9-12.PS3.A.2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects). [Clarification Statement: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, the energy stored due to position of an object above the earth, and the energy stored between two electrically-charged plates. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.]

MO.9-12.ESS. Earth and Space Sciences

9-12.ESS1. Earth's Place in the Universe

9-12.ESS1.A. The Universe and its Stars
9-12.ESS1.A.1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the Sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the Sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”).]
9-12.ESS1.A.2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
9-12.ESS1.B. Earth and the Solar System
9-12.ESS1.B.1. Use Kepler’s Law to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.]
9-12.ESS1.C. The History of Planet Earth
9-12.ESS1.C.1. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust, the theory of plate tectonics, and relative densities of oceanic and continental rocks to explain why continental rocks are generally much older than rocks of the ocean floor. [Clarification Statement: Examples include the ages of oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust increasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
9-12.ESS1.C.2. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The History of Earth
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

9-12.ESS2. Earth's Systems

9-12.ESS2.A. Earth Materials and Systems
9-12.ESS2.A.1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s interior and surface processes (constructive and destructive) operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).]
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.A.3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one-dimensional model of Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure laboratory experiments.
9-12.ESS2.A.4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.C. The Role of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
9-12.ESS2.C.1. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide the evidence for connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, or ice wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids).]
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.E. Biogeology
9-12.ESS2.E.1. Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the dynamic causes, effects, and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth’s other systems, whereby geoscience factors control the evolution of life, which in turn continuously alters Earth’s surface. Examples of coevolution include how photosynthetic life altered the atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the evolution of land plants; or how the evolution of corals created reefs that altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided habitats for new life.]

9-12.ESS3. Earth and Human Activity

9-12.ESS3.A. Natural Resources
9-12.ESS3.A.1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to fresh water, regions of fertile soils such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass wasting and soil erosion), and severe weather. Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.A.2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on economic, social, and environmental cost-benefit ratios. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conservation, recycling, and reuse of resources (such as minerals and metals) where possible, and on minimizing impacts where it is not. Examples include developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining (for coal, tar sands, and oil shale), and pumping (for petroleum and natural gas). Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen.]
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9-12.ESS3.C. Human Impacts on Earth's Systems
9-12.ESS3.C.1. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural resources include costs of resource extraction and waste management, per-capita consumption, and the development of new technologies. Examples of factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels of conservation, and urban planning.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.C.2. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems in order to restore stability and or biodiversity of the ecosystem as well as prevent their reoccurrences. [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities could include forest fires, acid rain, flooding, urban development, pollution, deforestation, and introduction of an invasive species.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.D. Global Climate Change
9-12.ESS3.D.1. Analyze geoscientific data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).]
9-12.ESS3.D.2. Predict how human activity affects the relationships between Earth systems in both positive and negative ways. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MO.9-12.PS. Physical Sciences

9-12.PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

9-12.PS2.A. Forces and Motion
9-12.PS2.A.1. Analyze data to support and verify the concepts expressed by Newton's 2nd law of motion, as it describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.]

9-12.PS3. Energy

9-12.PS3.A. Definitions of Energy
9-12.PS3.A.2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects). [Clarification Statement: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, the energy stored due to position of an object above the earth, and the energy stored between two electrically-charged plates. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.]

MO.9-12.ESS. Earth and Space Sciences

9-12.ESS1. Earth's Place in the Universe

9-12.ESS1.A. The Universe and its Stars
9-12.ESS1.A.1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the Sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the Sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”).]
9-12.ESS1.A.2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
9-12.ESS1.B. Earth and the Solar System
9-12.ESS1.B.1. Use Kepler’s Law to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.]
9-12.ESS1.C. The History of Planet Earth
9-12.ESS1.C.1. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust, the theory of plate tectonics, and relative densities of oceanic and continental rocks to explain why continental rocks are generally much older than rocks of the ocean floor. [Clarification Statement: Examples include the ages of oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust increasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
9-12.ESS1.C.2. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The History of Earth
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

9-12.ESS2. Earth's Systems

9-12.ESS2.A. Earth Materials and Systems
9-12.ESS2.A.1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s interior and surface processes (constructive and destructive) operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).]
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.A.3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one-dimensional model of Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure laboratory experiments.
9-12.ESS2.A.4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.C. The Role of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
9-12.ESS2.C.1. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide the evidence for connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, or ice wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids).]
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.E. Biogeology
9-12.ESS2.E.1. Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the dynamic causes, effects, and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth’s other systems, whereby geoscience factors control the evolution of life, which in turn continuously alters Earth’s surface. Examples of coevolution include how photosynthetic life altered the atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the evolution of land plants; or how the evolution of corals created reefs that altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided habitats for new life.]

9-12.ESS3. Earth and Human Activity

9-12.ESS3.A. Natural Resources
9-12.ESS3.A.1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to fresh water, regions of fertile soils such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass wasting and soil erosion), and severe weather. Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.A.2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on economic, social, and environmental cost-benefit ratios. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conservation, recycling, and reuse of resources (such as minerals and metals) where possible, and on minimizing impacts where it is not. Examples include developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining (for coal, tar sands, and oil shale), and pumping (for petroleum and natural gas). Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen.]
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9-12.ESS3.C. Human Impacts on Earth's Systems
9-12.ESS3.C.1. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural resources include costs of resource extraction and waste management, per-capita consumption, and the development of new technologies. Examples of factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels of conservation, and urban planning.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.C.2. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems in order to restore stability and or biodiversity of the ecosystem as well as prevent their reoccurrences. [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities could include forest fires, acid rain, flooding, urban development, pollution, deforestation, and introduction of an invasive species.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.D. Global Climate Change
9-12.ESS3.D.1. Analyze geoscientific data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).]
9-12.ESS3.D.2. Predict how human activity affects the relationships between Earth systems in both positive and negative ways. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MO.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.

MO.9-12.PS. Physical Sciences

9-12.PS2. Motion and Stability: Forces and Interactions

9-12.PS2.A. Forces and Motion
9-12.PS2.A.1. Analyze data to support and verify the concepts expressed by Newton's 2nd law of motion, as it describes the mathematical relationship among the net force on a macroscopic object, its mass, and its acceleration. [Clarification Statement: Examples of data could include tables or graphs of position or velocity as a function of time for objects subject to a net unbalanced force, such as a falling object, an object rolling down a ramp, or a moving object being pulled by a constant force.]

9-12.PS3. Energy

9-12.PS3.A. Definitions of Energy
9-12.PS3.A.1. Create a computational model to calculate the change in the energy of one component in a system when the changes in energy are known. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on explaining the meaning of mathematical expressions used in the model.]
Thermodynamics
Worksheets :4
9-12.PS3.A.2. Develop and use models to illustrate that energy at the macroscopic scale can be accounted for as a combination of energy associated with the motions of particles (objects) and energy associated with the relative position of particles (objects). [Clarification Statement: Examples of phenomena at the macroscopic scale could include the conversion of kinetic energy to thermal energy, the energy stored due to position of an object above the earth, and the energy stored between two electrically-charged plates. Examples of models could include diagrams, drawings, descriptions, and computer simulations.]

MO.9-12.ESS. Earth and Space Sciences

9-12.ESS1. Earth's Place in the Universe

9-12.ESS1.A. The Universe and its Stars
9-12.ESS1.A.1. Develop a model based on evidence to illustrate the life span of the Sun and the role of nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to release energy in the form of radiation. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the energy transfer mechanisms that allow energy from nuclear fusion in the Sun’s core to reach Earth. Examples of evidence for the model include observations of the masses and lifetimes of other stars, as well as the ways that the Sun’s radiation varies due to sudden solar flares (“space weather”).]
9-12.ESS1.A.2. Construct an explanation of the Big Bang theory based on astronomical evidence of light spectra, motion of distant galaxies, and composition of matter in the universe. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the astronomical evidence of the red shift of light from galaxies as an indication that the universe is currently expanding, the cosmic microwave background as the remnant radiation from the Big Bang, and the observed composition of ordinary matter of the universe, primarily found in stars and interstellar gases (from the spectra of electromagnetic radiation from stars), which matches that predicted by the Big Bang theory (3/4 hydrogen and 1/4 helium).]
9-12.ESS1.B. Earth and the Solar System
9-12.ESS1.B.1. Use Kepler’s Law to predict the motion of orbiting objects in the solar system. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on Newtonian gravitational laws governing orbital motions, which apply to human-made satellites as well as planets and moons.]
9-12.ESS1.C. The History of Planet Earth
9-12.ESS1.C.1. Evaluate evidence of the past and current movements of continental and oceanic crust, the theory of plate tectonics, and relative densities of oceanic and continental rocks to explain why continental rocks are generally much older than rocks of the ocean floor. [Clarification Statement: Examples include the ages of oceanic crust increasing with distance from mid-ocean ridges (a result of plate spreading) and the ages of North American continental crust increasing with distance away from a central ancient core (a result of past plate interactions).]
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3
9-12.ESS1.C.2. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from ancient Earth materials, meteorites, and other planetary surfaces to construct an account of Earth’s formation and early history. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on using available evidence within the solar system to reconstruct the early history of Earth, which formed along with the rest of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. Examples of evidence include the absolute ages of ancient materials (obtained by radiometric dating of meteorites, moon rocks, and Earth’s oldest minerals), the sizes and compositions of solar system objects, and the impact cratering record of planetary surfaces.]
The History of Earth
Worksheets :3
Fossils I
Worksheets :4
Fossils II
Worksheets :3

9-12.ESS2. Earth's Systems

9-12.ESS2.A. Earth Materials and Systems
9-12.ESS2.A.1. Develop a model to illustrate how Earth’s interior and surface processes (constructive and destructive) operate at different spatial and temporal scales to form continental and ocean-floor features. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on how the appearance of land features (such as mountains, valleys, and plateaus) and sea-floor features (such as trenches, ridges, and seamounts) are a result of both constructive forces (such as volcanism, tectonic uplift, and orogeny) and destructive mechanisms (such as weathering, mass wasting, and coastal erosion).]
The Rock Cycle
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.A.3. Develop a model based on evidence of Earth’s interior to describe the cycling of matter by thermal convection. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on both a one-dimensional model of Earth, with radial layers determined by density, and a three-dimensional model, which is controlled by mantle convection and the resulting plate tectonics. Examples of evidence include maps of Earth’s three-dimensional structure obtained from seismic waves, records of the rate of change of Earth’s magnetic field (as constraints on convection in the outer core), and identification of the composition of Earth’s layers from high-pressure laboratory experiments.
9-12.ESS2.A.4. Use a model to describe how variations in the flow of energy into and out of Earth’s systems result in changes in climate.
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.C. The Role of Water in Earth's Surface Processes
9-12.ESS2.C.1. Plan and conduct an investigation of the properties of water and its effects on Earth materials and surface processes. Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on mechanical and chemical investigations with water and a variety of solid materials to provide the evidence for connections between the hydrologic cycle and system interactions commonly known as the rock cycle. Examples of mechanical investigations include stream transportation and deposition using a stream table, erosion using variations in soil moisture content, or ice wedging by the expansion of water as it freezes. Examples of chemical investigations include chemical weathering and recrystallization (by testing the solubility of different materials) or melt generation (by examining how water lowers the melting temperature of most solids).]
Weathering and Erosion
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS2.E. Biogeology
9-12.ESS2.E.1. Construct an argument based on evidence about the simultaneous coevolution of Earth’s systems and life on Earth. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the dynamic causes, effects, and feedbacks between the biosphere and Earth’s other systems, whereby geoscience factors control the evolution of life, which in turn continuously alters Earth’s surface. Examples of coevolution include how photosynthetic life altered the atmosphere through the production of oxygen, which in turn increased weathering rates and allowed for the evolution of animal life; how microbial life on land increased the formation of soil, which in turn allowed for the evolution of land plants; or how the evolution of corals created reefs that altered patterns of erosion and deposition along coastlines and provided habitats for new life.]

9-12.ESS3. Earth and Human Activity

9-12.ESS3.A. Natural Resources
9-12.ESS3.A.1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for how the availability of natural resources, occurrence of natural hazards, and changes in climate have influenced human activity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of key natural resources include access to fresh water, regions of fertile soils such as river deltas, and high concentrations of minerals and fossil fuels. Examples of natural hazards can be from interior processes (such as volcanic eruptions and earthquakes), surface processes (such as tsunamis, mass wasting and soil erosion), and severe weather. Examples of the results of changes in climate that can affect populations or drive mass migrations include changes to sea level, regional patterns of temperature and precipitation, and the types of crops and livestock that can be raised.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
Weather II
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.A.2. Evaluate competing design solutions for developing, managing, and utilizing energy and mineral resources based on economic, social, and environmental cost-benefit ratios. [Clarification Statement: Emphasis is on the conservation, recycling, and reuse of resources (such as minerals and metals) where possible, and on minimizing impacts where it is not. Examples include developing best practices for agricultural soil use, mining (for coal, tar sands, and oil shale), and pumping (for petroleum and natural gas). Science knowledge indicates what can happen in natural systems—not what should happen.]
Minerals II
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :2
9-12.ESS3.C. Human Impacts on Earth's Systems
9-12.ESS3.C.1. Create a computational simulation to illustrate the relationships among management of natural resources, the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity. [Clarification Statement: Examples of factors that affect the management of natural resources include costs of resource extraction and waste management, per-capita consumption, and the development of new technologies. Examples of factors that affect human sustainability include agricultural efficiency, levels of conservation, and urban planning.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.C.2. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems in order to restore stability and or biodiversity of the ecosystem as well as prevent their reoccurrences. [Clarification Statement: Examples of human activities could include forest fires, acid rain, flooding, urban development, pollution, deforestation, and introduction of an invasive species.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
9-12.ESS3.D. Global Climate Change
9-12.ESS3.D.1. Analyze geoscientific data and the results from global climate models to make an evidence-based forecast of the current rate of global or regional climate change and associated future impacts to Earth systems. [Clarification Statement: Examples of evidence, for both data and climate model outputs, are for climate changes (such as precipitation and temperature) and their associated impacts (such as on sea level, glacial ice volumes, or atmosphere and ocean composition).]
9-12.ESS3.D.2. Predict how human activity affects the relationships between Earth systems in both positive and negative ways. [Clarification Statement: Examples of Earth systems to be considered are the hydrosphere, atmosphere, cryosphere, geosphere, and/or biosphere.]
Oceans
Worksheets :4Vocabulary :3
The Atmosphere
Worksheets :3Vocabulary :3

MO.RST.11-12. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects

Craft and Structure

RST.11-12.4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 11-12 texts and topics.
Chemical Reactions
Worksheets :3
Standards

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