Kentucky Academic Standards for Eighth Grade English Language Arts

Adding New Words to Our Language
FreeOne way that words are added to our language is by word borrowing. Words are "borrowed" from other countries and from other languages. Examples: Tomahawk is the Native American word for a kind of weapon, Spaghetti is a word that came from Italy, Taco is a word that came from Mexico. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Capitalization
Which Words Should Be Capitalized? In English, there are very specific rules for capitalizing words. The following categories of words should always be capitalized: Languages: French; Races: Native Americans; Nationalities: Spanish; School: Subjects Math II; Brand Names: Coca Cola; Ships: Titanic; Books: Hatchet by Gary Paulsen; Newspapers: New York Times; Magazines: Newsweek; Songs: The Star-Spangled Banner; Movies: King Kong; Abbreviations: A.M. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Compound and Complex Sentences
Two or more sentences joined together are known as a compound sentence. The simple sentences in a compound sentence can be joined together with a comma and a conjunction, or with a semicolon. A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought. Subordinate clauses are either adjective clauses or adverb clauses. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Conducting Interviews and Discussions
What is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles
What is a Gerund? A gerund is a verb that is used as a noun. A gerund is formed by adding -ing to the present form of a verb. What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verb that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The word to is known as the sign of the infinitive. What is a Participle? A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective. The two types of participles are present participles and past participles. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Library Skills
What Can Be Found in a Library? Books, almanacs, atlases, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries, and encyclopedias can be found in a library/media center. Most libraries are divided into areas, called sections: The Stacks: fiction and nonfiction books; Periodicals: magazines and newspapers; Reference, encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and almanacs; Catalog: online catalog or card catalog drawers. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Modifiers-Adverbs
What is an Adverb? A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb is called an adverb. Modify means to change. Since adverbs change the meanings of verbs and adjectives, adverbs are also called modifiers. Adverbs answer the questions: How? When? Where? or To What Extent? Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
What is a Preposition? A preposition is a connective that shows a relationship between the noun or pronoun following the preposition and another word in the sentence. What is a Conjunction? A conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or simple sentences. What is an Interjection? An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses strong feelings. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Punctuation
What are Punctuation Marks? Punctuation marks are symbols to help readers understand how to read sentences. Examples: Period-ending marks, abbreviations; Question mark-ending marks; Exclamation point-ending marks; Comma-separating items or words, direct address, dates; Semicolon-joining two parts of a compound sentence; Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Reading and the Internet
The letters that are typed in to find a particular website are called the web address. A website address that is saved in the computer's memory is called a bookmark. An email address contains three parts: the name, the "at" symbol, and the name of the Internet Service Provider. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Reading Rate
What is Reading Rate? Reading rate is the speed at which a person reads a particular text. A person needs to determine the purpose for reading before he/she chooses a reading rate. Purposes of Reading: Scanning - reading to find a specific fact or detail; Skimming - reading to get an overview of the text; Reading for comprehension - demands careful, thoughtful reading from the student, and rereading may be required. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Reading-Drama
Drama is a genre that uses dialogue to tell a story. The elements of drama are: characters, setting, plot and theme. A list of characters in the play is called the cast. The place and time of the play is known as the setting. The main events in the play make up the plot. The main idea of the play is called the theme. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Sentences
What is a Sentence? A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence must contain a subject and a predicate. An incomplete sentence is known as a sentence fragment. Two or more sentences written together are known as a run-on sentence. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Spelling
Are There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. A memory device may be of use: c-a-p-i-t-o-l is the spelling for our nation’s Capitol Building; the "o" looks like the dome of the Capitol Building. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Text Features
What are Text Features? The elements of a textbook that are useful in helping to understand the content of the book are called the text features. An effective reader uses the text features to preview the textbook before beginning to read: The title page contains the title of the book, the author, the publisher, and the place where the book was published. The glossary contains the definitions of words from the textbook. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1

Reading Standards for Literature—Grade 8

Key Ideas and Details

1 Students will read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence to support conclusions drawn from the text.
RL.8.1. Cite relevant textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2 Students will determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; cite specific textual evidence, including summary, paraphrase and direct quotations, to support conclusions drawn from the text.
RL.8.2. Determine themes of a text, and analyze how they are developed through relationships of characters, setting and plot, citing textual evidence, paraphrasing or summarizing.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
3 Students will analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.
RL.8.3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character or provoke a decision.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Craft and Structure

4 Students will interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
RL.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including but not limited to analogies or allusions to other texts.
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Figurative Language
Figurative language is the opposite of literal language. The writer uses techniques like repetition, exaggeration, alliteration, personification, onomatopoeia, similes, and metaphors to create images in the reader's mind. Using a sound, word, or phrase more than once is known as repetition. When a writer intentionally stretches the truth, he/she is using exaggeration. When a writer repeats a consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row, he/she is using alliteration. Poems are divided into groups of lines called stanzas. Words that end with the same sound are called rhyming words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
6 Students will analyze how point of view, perspective and purpose shape the content and style of a text.
RL.8.6. Analyze characters’ and readers’ perspectives and how the differences create effects, including but not limited to suspense, humor and empathy.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

10 Students will read, comprehend and analyze complex literary texts independently and proficiently.
RL.8.10. By the end of the year, flexibly use a variety of comprehension strategies (i.e., questioning, monitoring, visualizing, inferencing, summarizing, synthesizing, using prior knowledge, determining importance) to read, comprehend and analyze grade-level appropriate, complex literary texts independently and proficiently.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Reading Standards for Informational Text—Grade 8

Key Ideas and Details

1 Students will read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence to support conclusions drawn from the text.
RI.8.1. Cite relevant textual evidence to support analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2 Students will determine central ideas of a text and analyze their development; cite specific textual evidence, including summary, paraphrase and direct quotations to support conclusions drawn from the text.
RI.8.2. Determine central ideas of a text, and analyze how they are developed through relationships of key details, citing textual evidence, paraphrasing or summarizing.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Craft and Structure

6 Students will analyze how point of view, perspective and purpose shape the content and style of a text.
RI.8.6. Determine an author’s perspective and purpose in a text, and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
Author's Purpose
The Author's Purpose is the reason that the author wrote the piece. If the author's purpose is to inform, he/she plans to teach the reader. If the author's purpose is to entertain, he/she plans to amuse the reader. If the author's purpose is to persuade, he/she plans to convince the reader to believe his/her point of view. If the author's purpose is to create a mood, he/she plans to use much description to stir emotions in the reader. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Titles and Authors
A student searching for a terrific book may want to try a book that has won a Newbery Medal. The Newbery Medal has been presented yearly since 1922 to the author of the most outstanding book written for children in the United States in the preceding year. The winning author must be either a citizen or a resident of the United States of America. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

8 Students will delineate and evaluate the argument, specific claims and evidence in a text, assessing the validity, reasoning, relevance and sufficiency.
RI.8.8. Identify and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
9 Students will analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Titles and Authors
A student searching for a terrific book may want to try a book that has won a Newbery Medal. The Newbery Medal has been presented yearly since 1922 to the author of the most outstanding book written for children in the United States in the preceding year. The winning author must be either a citizen or a resident of the United States of America. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

10 Students will read, comprehend and analyze complex informational texts independently and proficiently.
RI.8.10. By the end of the year, flexibly use a variety of comprehension strategies (i.e., questioning, monitoring, visualizing, inferencing, summarizing, synthesizing, using prior knowledge, determining importance) to read, comprehend, and analyze grade-level appropriate, complex informational texts independently and proficiently.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Composition—Grade 8

Text Types and Purposes

1 Students will compose arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
C.8.1. Compose arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence.
C.8.1.a. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
C.8.1.e. Establish and maintain a task appropriate writing style.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
C.8.1.g. With some guidance, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
2 Students will compose informative and explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization and analysis of content.
C.8.2. Compose informative and/or explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas, concepts and information through the selection, organization and analysis of relevant content.
C.8.2.a. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
C.8.2.h. With some guidance, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach, focusing on how well purpose and audience have been addressed.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
3 Students will compose narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events, using effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured event sequences.
C.8.3. Use narratives strategically in other modes of writing, utilizing effective technique, well-chosen details and well-structured sequences for an intended purpose.
C.8.3.a. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization and style are appropriate to task, purpose and audience.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
C.8.3.c. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description and reflection, to develop experiences, events and/or characters.
Descriptive Text
What is Descriptive Text? Descriptive writing appeals to the senses. Writers often create a mood by choosing specific descriptive words. Descriptive writing can be made more precise by using exact words. Figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, are often used in descriptive writing. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
C.8.3.e. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
Descriptive Text
What is Descriptive Text? Descriptive writing appeals to the senses. Writers often create a mood by choosing specific descriptive words. Descriptive writing can be made more precise by using exact words. Figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, are often used in descriptive writing. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
C.8.3.g. With guidance, develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting or trying a new approach.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

5 Students will conduct short as well as more sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
C.8.5. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating new avenues for inquiry.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
6 Students will gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source and integrate the information for the purposes of analysis, reflection and research while avoiding plagiarism.
C.8.6. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and, in order to reflect, analyze or complete short research projects, quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism by providing in-text and bibliographic MLA or APA citation.
Writing a Research Report
The process of preparing a research report has numerous steps. The student chooses a subject, prepares a list of questions to guide his/her research, gathers information from two or more sources, organizes the information, and presents it to the reader in a readable form. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Range of Writing

7 Students will compose routinely over extended and shorter time frames for a variety of tasks, purposes and audiences.
C.8.7. Compose routinely over extended time frames and shorter time frames for a variety of tasks, purposes and audiences.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Language—Grade 8

Conventions of Standard English

2 Students will demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation and spelling when writing.
L.8.2. When writing:
L.8.2.c. Demonstrate appropriate use of strategies and resources (print and electronic) to identify and correct spelling errors.
Dictionary Skills
A dictionary is a useful tool in the study of words. Words are listed alphabetically in a dictionary so that they are easy to find. We look up words in a dictionary to find out about the word, including how to use it, what it means, and other important attributes of the word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Using References
What is a Reference? A reference is a book or an online source where a student can find facts. Examples: Encyclopedia, Atlas, Dictionary, Thesaurus, Almanac, Magazine, Pamphlet, Catalog. What reference is the Guinness Book of World Records? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

4 Students will use a variety of strategies to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases, consulting reference material when appropriate. Students will acquire and use accurately a range of general academic and domain-specific words and phrases sufficient for reading, writing, speaking and listening in order to be transition ready.
L.8.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies.
L.8.4.a. Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
L.8.4.b. Use Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word.
Structural Analysis
In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in our language: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Structural Analysis
What is Structural Analysis in Reading? In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in English: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? What are the meanings of the affixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
L.8.4.c. Consult print and digital reference materials to find the pronunciation and determine or clarity the precise meaning of key words and phrases.
Dictionary Skills
A dictionary is a useful tool in the study of words. Words are listed alphabetically in a dictionary so that they are easy to find. We look up words in a dictionary to find out about the word, including how to use it, what it means, and other important attributes of the word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Using References
What is a Reference? A reference is a book or an online source where a student can find facts. Examples: Encyclopedia, Atlas, Dictionary, Thesaurus, Almanac, Magazine, Pamphlet, Catalog. What reference is the Guinness Book of World Records? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
5 Students will demonstrate understanding of word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5.a. Interpret figurative language, including but not limited to irony, in context.
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Reading-Figurative Language
Figurative language is the opposite of literal language. The writer uses techniques like repetition, exaggeration, alliteration, personification, onomatopoeia, similes, and metaphors to create images in the reader's mind. Using a sound, word, or phrase more than once is known as repetition. When a writer intentionally stretches the truth, he/she is using exaggeration. When a writer repeats a consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row, he/she is using alliteration. Poems are divided into groups of lines called stanzas. Words that end with the same sound are called rhyming words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
L.8.5.b. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
L.8.5.c. Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

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