North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Eighth Grade English Language Arts

Adding New Words to Our LanguageFreeOne way that words are added to our language is by word borrowing. Words are "borrowed" from other countries and from other languages. Examples: Tomahawk is the Native American word for a kind of weapon, Spaghetti is a word that came from Italy, Taco is a word that came from Mexico. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Compound and Complex SentencesTwo or more sentences joined together are known as a compound sentence. The simple sentences in a compound sentence can be joined together with a comma and a conjunction, or with a semicolon. A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought. Subordinate clauses are either adjective clauses or adverb clauses. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Gerunds, Infinitives, and ParticiplesWhat is a Gerund? A gerund is a verb that is used as a noun. A gerund is formed by adding -ing to the present form of a verb. What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verb that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The word to is known as the sign of the infinitive. What is a Participle? A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective. The two types of participles are present participles and past participles. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Library SkillsWhat Can Be Found in a Library? Books, almanacs, atlases, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries, and encyclopedias can be found in a library/media center. Most libraries are divided into areas, called sections: The Stacks: fiction and nonfiction books; Periodicals: magazines and newspapers; Reference, encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and almanacs; Catalog: online catalog or card catalog drawers. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Modifiers-AdverbsWhat is an Adverb? A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb is called an adverb. Modify means to change. Since adverbs change the meanings of verbs and adjectives, adverbs are also called modifiers. Adverbs answer the questions: How? When? Where? or To What Extent? Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Prepositions, Conjunctions, and InterjectionsWhat is a Preposition? A preposition is a connective that shows a relationship between the noun or pronoun following the preposition and another word in the sentence. What is a Conjunction? A conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or simple sentences. What is an Interjection? An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses strong feelings. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Reading and the InternetThe letters that are typed in to find a particular website are called the web address. A website address that is saved in the computer's memory is called a bookmark. An email address contains three parts: the name, the "at" symbol, and the name of the Internet Service Provider. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Reading RateWhat is Reading Rate? Reading rate is the speed at which a person reads a particular text. A person needs to determine the purpose for reading before he/she chooses a reading rate. Purposes of Reading: Scanning - reading to find a specific fact or detail; Skimming - reading to get an overview of the text; Reading for comprehension - demands careful, thoughtful reading from the student, and rereading may be required. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Reading-DramaDrama is a genre that uses dialogue to tell a story. The elements of drama are: characters, setting, plot and theme. A list of characters in the play is called the cast. The place and time of the play is known as the setting. The main events in the play make up the plot. The main idea of the play is called the theme. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Reading-Structural AnalysisWhat is Structural Analysis in Reading? In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in English: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? What are the meanings of the affixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Regular and Irregular VerbsWhat is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
SentencesWhat is a Sentence? A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence must contain a subject and a predicate. An incomplete sentence is known as a sentence fragment. Two or more sentences written together are known as a run-on sentence. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Text FeaturesWhat are Text Features? The elements of a textbook that are useful in helping to understand the content of the book are called the text features. An effective reader uses the text features to preview the textbook before beginning to read: The title page contains the title of the book, the author, the publisher, and the place where the book was published. The glossary contains the definitions of words from the textbook. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Titles and AuthorsA student searching for a terrific book may want to try a book that has won a Newbery Medal. The Newbery Medal has been presented yearly since 1922 to the author of the most outstanding book written for children in the United States in the preceding year. The winning author must be either a citizen or a resident of the United States of America. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1

NC.RL. READING: LITERATURE

RL.1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

RL.8.1. Cite textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Thinking SkillsWhat are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RL.2. Determine central ideas (RI) or themes (RL) of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

RL.8.2. Determine a theme of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
Narrative TextWhat is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RL.3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

RL.8.3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character, or provoke a decision.
Narrative TextWhat is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RL.4. Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.

RL.8.4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
Narrative TextWhat is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Vocabulary What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RL.10. Read and understand complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently, connecting prior knowledge and experiences to text.

RL.8.10. By the end of grade 8, read and understand literature at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.
Reading ProcessWhat Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NC.RI. READING: INFORMATIONAL TEXT

RI.1. Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.

RI.8.1. Cite textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
Expository TextExpository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking SkillsWhat are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RI.2. Determine central ideas (RI) or themes (RL) of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.

RI.8.2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
Expository TextExpository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RI.3. Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of a text.

RI.8.3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events.
Expository TextExpository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RI.6. Assess how point of view, perspective, or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.

RI.8.6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
Author's PurposeThe Author's Purpose is the reason that the author wrote the piece. If the author's purpose is to inform, he/she plans to teach the reader. If the author's purpose is to entertain, he/she plans to amuse the reader. If the author's purpose is to persuade, he/she plans to convince the reader to believe his/her point of view. If the author's purpose is to create a mood, he/she plans to use much description to stir emotions in the reader. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

RI.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.

RI.8.8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
Persuasive TextWhat is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RI.9. Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.

RI.8.9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
Expository TextExpository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

RI.10. Read and understand complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently, connecting prior knowledge and experiences to text.

RI.8.10. By the end of grade 8, read and understand informational texts at the high end of the 6-8 text complexity band proficiently and independently for sustained periods of time. Connect prior knowledge and experiences to text.
Reading ProcessWhat Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NC.W. WRITING

W.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.

W.8.3. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences.
W.8.3.c. Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, description, and reflection, to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
Descriptive TextWhat is Descriptive Text? Descriptive writing appeals to the senses. Writers often create a mood by choosing specific descriptive words. Descriptive writing can be made more precise by using exact words. Figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, are often used in descriptive writing. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
W.8.3.e. Use precise words and phrases, relevant descriptive details, and sensory language to capture the action and convey experiences and events.
Descriptive TextWhat is Descriptive Text? Descriptive writing appeals to the senses. Writers often create a mood by choosing specific descriptive words. Descriptive writing can be made more precise by using exact words. Figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, are often used in descriptive writing. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

W.6. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.

W.8.6. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, using search terms effectively; assess the credibility and accuracy of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
Thinking SkillsWhat are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Writing a Research ReportThe process of preparing a research report has numerous steps. The student chooses a subject, prepares a list of questions to guide his/her research, gathers information from two or more sources, organizes the information, and presents it to the reader in a readable form. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NC.SL. SPEAKING AND LISTENING

SL.1. Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.

SL.8.1. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one on one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly.
SL.8.1.a. Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
Conducting Interviews and DiscussionsWhat is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
SL.8.1.b. Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
Conducting Interviews and DiscussionsWhat is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
SL.8.1.c. Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
Conducting Interviews and DiscussionsWhat is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
SL.8.1.d. Acknowledge new information expressed by others, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views in light of the evidence presented.
Conducting Interviews and DiscussionsWhat is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

SL.4. Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.

SL.8.4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks.
SpeakingSpeaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

SL.5. Make strategic use of digital media and visual displays of data to express information and enhance understanding of presentations.

SL.8.5. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest.
SpeakingSpeaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

NC.L. LANGUAGE

L.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the appropriate grade band grammar continuum.

L.8.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 grammar continuum.
UsageWhat Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
UsageThe way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:<br/> Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

L.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the appropriate grade band conventions continuum.

L.8.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing; demonstrate proficiency within the 6-8 conventions continuum.
Capitalization The following categories of words should always be capitalized: The Pronoun "I", First Words of Sentences, Names and Titles of People, Family Relationships, Geographical Names, Parks, Mountains, Areas of the United States, Organizations, Teams, Companies, Schools, Awards, Religions. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
PunctuationWhat Are Punctuation Marks? Punctuation marks are symbols to help readers understand how to read sentences. Examples: Period-ending marks, abbreviations; Question mark-ending marks; Exclamation point-ending marks; Comma-separating items or words, direct address, dates. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
SpellingAre There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
CapitalizationWhich Words Should Be Capitalized? In English, there are very specific rules for capitalizing words. The following categories of words should always be capitalized: Languages: French; Races: Native Americans; Nationalities: Spanish; School: Subjects Math II; Brand Names: Coca Cola; Ships: Titanic; Books: Hatchet by Gary Paulsen; Newspapers: New York Times; Magazines: Newsweek; Songs: The Star-Spangled Banner; Movies: King Kong; Abbreviations: A.M. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
PunctuationWhat are Punctuation Marks? Punctuation marks are symbols to help readers understand how to read sentences. Examples: Period-ending marks, abbreviations; Question mark-ending marks; Exclamation point-ending marks; Comma-separating items or words, direct address, dates; Semicolon-joining two parts of a compound sentence; Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
SpellingAre There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. A memory device may be of use: c-a-p-i-t-o-l is the spelling for our nation’s Capitol Building; the "o" looks like the dome of the Capitol Building. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

L.4. Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, word relationships, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.

L.8.4. Determine and/or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies: context clues, word parts, word relationships, and reference materials.
Dictionary SkillsA dictionary is a useful tool in the study of words. Words are listed alphabetically in a dictionary so that they are easy to find. We look up words in a dictionary to find out about the word, including how to use it, what it means, and other important attributes of the word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Vocabulary What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Using ReferencesWhat is a Reference? A reference is a book or an online source where a student can find facts. Examples: Encyclopedia, Atlas, Dictionary, Thesaurus, Almanac, Magazine, Pamphlet, Catalog. What reference is the Guinness Book of World Records? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

L.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.

L.8.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language and nuances in word meanings.
L.8.5.a. Interpret figures of speech in context based on grade 8 reading and content.
Figurative Language FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Reading-Figurative LanguageFigurative language is the opposite of literal language. The writer uses techniques like repetition, exaggeration, alliteration, personification, onomatopoeia, similes, and metaphors to create images in the reader's mind. Using a sound, word, or phrase more than once is known as repetition. When a writer intentionally stretches the truth, he/she is using exaggeration. When a writer repeats a consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row, he/she is using alliteration. Poems are divided into groups of lines called stanzas. Words that end with the same sound are called rhyming words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
L.8.5.b. Distinguish among the connotations of words with similar denotations.
Vocabulary What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
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