Maryland College and Career-Ready Standards for Eighth Grade English Language Arts

Adding New Words to Our Language
FreeOne way that words are added to our language is by word borrowing. Words are "borrowed" from other countries and from other languages. Examples: Tomahawk is the Native American word for a kind of weapon, Spaghetti is a word that came from Italy, Taco is a word that came from Mexico. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Capitalization
Which Words Should Be Capitalized? In English, there are very specific rules for capitalizing words. The following categories of words should always be capitalized: Languages: French; Races: Native Americans; Nationalities: Spanish; School: Subjects Math II; Brand Names: Coca Cola; Ships: Titanic; Books: Hatchet by Gary Paulsen; Newspapers: New York Times; Magazines: Newsweek; Songs: The Star-Spangled Banner; Movies: King Kong; Abbreviations: A.M. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Compound and Complex Sentences
Two or more sentences joined together are known as a compound sentence. The simple sentences in a compound sentence can be joined together with a comma and a conjunction, or with a semicolon. A complex sentence has one independent clause and one or more subordinate clauses. A subordinate clause does not express a complete thought. Subordinate clauses are either adjective clauses or adverb clauses. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Library Skills
What Can Be Found in a Library? Books, almanacs, atlases, magazines, newspapers, dictionaries, and encyclopedias can be found in a library/media center. Most libraries are divided into areas, called sections: The Stacks: fiction and nonfiction books; Periodicals: magazines and newspapers; Reference, encyclopedias, dictionaries, atlases, and almanacs; Catalog: online catalog or card catalog drawers. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Modifiers-Adverbs
What is an Adverb? A word that modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb is called an adverb. Modify means to change. Since adverbs change the meanings of verbs and adjectives, adverbs are also called modifiers. Adverbs answer the questions: How? When? Where? or To What Extent? Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Prepositions, Conjunctions, and Interjections
What is a Preposition? A preposition is a connective that shows a relationship between the noun or pronoun following the preposition and another word in the sentence. What is a Conjunction? A conjunction is a word that connects words, phrases, or simple sentences. What is an Interjection? An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses strong feelings. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Punctuation
What are Punctuation Marks? Punctuation marks are symbols to help readers understand how to read sentences. Examples: Period-ending marks, abbreviations; Question mark-ending marks; Exclamation point-ending marks; Comma-separating items or words, direct address, dates; Semicolon-joining two parts of a compound sentence; Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Reading and the Internet
The letters that are typed in to find a particular website are called the web address. A website address that is saved in the computer's memory is called a bookmark. An email address contains three parts: the name, the "at" symbol, and the name of the Internet Service Provider. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Reading Rate
What is Reading Rate? Reading rate is the speed at which a person reads a particular text. A person needs to determine the purpose for reading before he/she chooses a reading rate. Purposes of Reading: Scanning - reading to find a specific fact or detail; Skimming - reading to get an overview of the text; Reading for comprehension - demands careful, thoughtful reading from the student, and rereading may be required. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Sentences
What is a Sentence? A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A sentence must contain a subject and a predicate. An incomplete sentence is known as a sentence fragment. Two or more sentences written together are known as a run-on sentence. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1
Writing a Research Report
The process of preparing a research report has numerous steps. The student chooses a subject, prepares a list of questions to guide his/her research, gathers information from two or more sources, organizes the information, and presents it to the reader in a readable form. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1

MD.RL. Standards for Reading Literature (RL)

Key Ideas and Details

RL1.CCR. Anchor Standard: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
8.RL1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
8.RL1.1. Select and apply appropriate before reading strategies interacting with a text e.g., previewing the text, setting a purpose for reading, making predictions about the text, and drawing connections between prior knowledge or experience and the text.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL1.3. Demonstrate comprehension of a text with after reading strategies by: explaining the main ideas; identifying what is directly stated in the text; drawing inferences; drawing conclusions; verifying or adjusting predictions; making new predictions; paraphrasing and summarizing (See MD SLM 6-8 4A2.b); making connections between the text and oneself.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL1.5. Among multiple pieces of evidence identify the strongest piece of evidence that suggests logically what might be true about characters, setting, plot, etc.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL1.6. Use relationships between words for understanding e.g., antonyms, synonyms, related words with similar word parts (See CCSS L.8.5b).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL1.7. Distinguish between connotations and denotations of words for understanding (See CCSS L.8.5c).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL1.9. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
RL2.CCR. Anchor Standard: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
8.RL2. Determine a theme or central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to the characters, setting, and plot; provide an objective summary of the text.
8.RL2.1. Determine the interaction among characters, setting, and plot through a text.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL2.3. Examine the interaction of characters, setting, and plot to express a theme.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL2.6. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
RL3.CCR. Anchor Standard: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of text.
8.RL3. Analyze how particular lines of dialogue or incidents in a story or drama propel the action, reveal aspects of a character or provoke a decision.
8.RL3.1. Examine what a character in a story or drama thinks, says, or does.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL3.2. Connect how a character’s speech, thoughts, or action cause movement within the plot or drama.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL3.3. Show how a character’s speech or thoughts reflect the traits a character displays.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL3.4. Use precise words and descriptive details to convey events (See CCSS W.8.3d).
Descriptive Text
What is Descriptive Text? Descriptive writing appeals to the senses. Writers often create a mood by choosing specific descriptive words. Descriptive writing can be made more precise by using exact words. Figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, are often used in descriptive writing. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL3.6. Present claims emphasizing the most important points supported by pertinent descriptions and details (See CCSS SL.8.4).
Descriptive Text
What is Descriptive Text? Descriptive writing appeals to the senses. Writers often create a mood by choosing specific descriptive words. Descriptive writing can be made more precise by using exact words. Figures of speech, such as similes and metaphors, are often used in descriptive writing. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL3.7. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

Craft and Structure

RL4.CCR. Anchor Standard: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
8.RL4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
8.RL4.2. Interpret analogies and literary allusions as a way to construct meaning in a literary text.
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RL4.3. Use context as a clue to the meaning of words and phrases (See CCSS L.8.4a).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL4.4. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). (CCSS L.8.4b)
Structural Analysis
In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in our language: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Structural Analysis
What is Structural Analysis in Reading? In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in English: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? What are the meanings of the affixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RL4.5. Verify an inferred meaning of a word or phrase in a dictionary (See CCSS L.7.4d).
Dictionary Skills
A dictionary is a useful tool in the study of words. Words are listed alphabetically in a dictionary so that they are easy to find. We look up words in a dictionary to find out about the word, including how to use it, what it means, and other important attributes of the word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Using References
What is a Reference? A reference is a book or an online source where a student can find facts. Examples: Encyclopedia, Atlas, Dictionary, Thesaurus, Almanac, Magazine, Pamphlet, Catalog. What reference is the Guinness Book of World Records? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL4.6. Examine the effects of diction, tone, figurative language, sound elements and connotation as a way to construct meaning (See CCSS L.8.5a, L.8.5c).
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Figurative Language
Figurative language is the opposite of literal language. The writer uses techniques like repetition, exaggeration, alliteration, personification, onomatopoeia, similes, and metaphors to create images in the reader's mind. Using a sound, word, or phrase more than once is known as repetition. When a writer intentionally stretches the truth, he/she is using exaggeration. When a writer repeats a consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row, he/she is using alliteration. Poems are divided into groups of lines called stanzas. Words that end with the same sound are called rhyming words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RL5.CCR. Anchor Standard: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
8.RL5. Compare and contrast the structure of two or more texts and analyze how the differing structure of each text contributes to its meaning and style.
8.RL5.2. Explain how the structures of multiple texts are alike and different.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RL6.CCR. Anchor Standard: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
8.RL6. Analyze how differences in the points of view of the characters and the audience or reader (e.g., created through the use of dramatic irony) create such effects as suspense or humor.
8.RL6.1. Demonstrate knowledge of mood.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL6.3. Explain how shared or opposing points of view between a reader and character can generate a specific mood.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL6.4. Analyze inferences drawn from a literary text (See CCSS RL.7.1).
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL6.5. Use dialogue to develop characters (See CCSS W.8.1b).
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RL7.CCR. Anchor Standard: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
8.RL7. Analyze the extent to which a filmed or live production of a story or drama stays faithful to or departs from the text or script, evaluating the choices made by the director or actors.
8.RL7.1. Demonstrate the behaviors of a strategic reader, viewer, or listener to a given literary text.
Listening and Viewing
An effective listener: has eye contact with the speaker, listens for the purpose of the speech, asks the speaker questions at the appropriate time, does not interrupt the speaker. An effective viewer: looks for the purpose in an advertisement, notices the date in a magazine or newspaper, searches for the labels on exhibits. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL7.7. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
RL9.CCR. Anchor Standard: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
8.RL9. Analyze how a modern work of fiction draws on themes, patterns of events, or character types from myths, traditional stories, or religious works such as the Bible, including describing how the material is rendered new.
8.RL9.1. Demonstrate the behaviors of a strategic reader to a given literary text.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL9.4. Examine characters, plots, and themes to determine the connections between and evolution of these elements from the traditional to the modern texts.
Narrative Text
What is Narrative Writing? Writing that tells a story is known as narrative writing. A narrative that tells a story based on imagined events is known as a fictional narrative. The characters, setting, and plot make up the elements of a story. Characters-the people involved in the plot of a narrative. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL9.5. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text. (CCSS RL.8.1)
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL9.8. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity

RL10.CCR. Anchor Standard: Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently.
8.RL10. By the end of the year, read and comprehend literature, including stories, dramas, and poems, at the high end of the grades 6-8 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
8.RL10.1. Adjust strategies as necessary for reading a self-selected and assigned range of grade-appropriate literary texts representing diverse cultures, perspectives, ethnicities, and time periods while self-monitoring for comprehension.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL10.2. Comprehend literary texts of steadily increasing complexity with scaffolding, as necessary.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RL10.4. (See MD SLM 6-8 6.0)
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Drama
Drama is a genre that uses dialogue to tell a story. The elements of drama are: characters, setting, plot and theme. A list of characters in the play is called the cast. The place and time of the play is known as the setting. The main events in the play make up the plot. The main idea of the play is called the theme. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

MD.RI. Standards for Reading Informational Text (RI)

Key Ideas and Details

RI1.CCR. Anchor Standard: Read closely to determine what the text says explicitly and to make logical inferences from it; cite specific textual evidence when writing or speaking to support conclusions drawn from the text.
8.RI1. Cite the textual evidence that most strongly supports an analysis of what the text says explicitly as well as inferences drawn from the text.
8.RI1.1. Select and apply appropriate before reading strategies to a text e.g., previewing the text, setting a purpose for reading, making predictions about the text, and drawing connections between prior knowledge or experience and the text.
Reading Process
What Is the Reading Process? The steps a student follows in reading effectively are called the reading process. The step in the reading process when a student looks over the selection is. Certain genres of literature need to be read more than once. This step in the reading process is called rereading. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI1.3. Demonstrate comprehension of a text with after reading strategies by: explaining the central ideas; identifying what is directly stated in the text; drawing inferences; drawing conclusions; verifying or adjusting predictions; making new predictions; paraphrasing and summarizing (See MD SLM 6-8 4A2.b); making connections between the text and oneself.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI1.4. Among multiple pieces of evidence determine, select, and state the piece of evidence that confirms the meaning of an informational text.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI1.5. Among multiple pieces of evidence identify the piece of evidence that suggests logically what might be true about an author’s purpose, opinion, important ideas, etc.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI1.7. Distinguish between connotations and denotations of words for understanding (See CCSS L.8.5c).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI1.9. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RI1.10. Use appropriate academic or domain-specific words when drawing inferences (See CCSS L.8.6).
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RI2.CCR. Anchor Standard: Determine central ideas or themes of a text and analyze their development; summarize the key supporting details and ideas.
8.RI2. Determine a central idea of a text and analyze its development over the course of the text, including its relationship to supporting ideas; provide an objective summary of the text.
8.RI2.1. Determine and examine the relationships between and among ideas throughout a text.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI2.2. Present findings with sound, valid reasoning supported by relevant evidence in a focused, coherent manner (See CCSS SL.8.4).
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI2.3. Synthesize relevant evidence to formulate a central idea.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI2.6. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
RI3.CCR. Anchor Standard: Analyze how and why individuals, events, and ideas develop and interact over the course of text. the connection between two individuals, events, ideas, or pieces of information in a text.
8.RI3. Analyze how a text makes connections among and distinctions between individuals, ideas, or events (e.g., through comparisons, analogies, or categories).
8.RI3.1. Determine the likenesses or differences in the relationships between or among individuals, ideas, or events within an informational text.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI3.2. Identify how the differences or likenesses between or among individuals, ideas, or events are revealed.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI3.3. Draw conclusions about the effectiveness of the methods used to present the likenesses or differences between or among individuals, ideas, or events.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI3.4. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RI3.6. See also MD SLM.6-8.4.0, as needed.
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Craft and Structure

RI4.CCR. Anchor Standard: Interpret words and phrases as they are used in a text, including determining technical, connotative, and figurative meanings, and analyze how specific word choices shape meaning or tone.
8.RI4. Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative, connotative, and technical meanings; analyze the impact of specific word choices on meaning and tone, including analogies or allusions to other texts.
8.RI4.1. Use evidence from an informational text to determine the effect of analogy and allusion to other texts on meaning of the text (See CCSS W.8.9).
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RI4.2. Use context as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase (See CCSS L.8.4a).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI4.3. Use common, grade-appropriate Greek or Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede). (CCSS L.8.4b)
Structural Analysis
In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in our language: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Structural Analysis
What is Structural Analysis in Reading? In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in English: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? What are the meanings of the affixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RI4.5. Determine the suggested meaning of connotations of words that address the same technical meaning (See CCSS L.8.5c).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RI5.CCR. Anchor Standard: Analyze the structure of texts, including how specific sentences, paragraphs, and larger portions of the text (e.g., a section, chapter, scene, or stanza) relate to each other and the whole.
8.RI5. Analyze in detail the structure of a specific paragraph in a text, including the role of particular sentences in developing and refining a key concept.
8.RI5.2. Determine the author’s purpose for the identified paragraph (See CCSS RI.8.6).
Author's Purpose
The Author's Purpose is the reason that the author wrote the piece. If the author's purpose is to inform, he/she plans to teach the reader. If the author's purpose is to entertain, he/she plans to amuse the reader. If the author's purpose is to persuade, he/she plans to convince the reader to believe his/her point of view. If the author's purpose is to create a mood, he/she plans to use much description to stir emotions in the reader. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Titles and Authors
A student searching for a terrific book may want to try a book that has won a Newbery Medal. The Newbery Medal has been presented yearly since 1922 to the author of the most outstanding book written for children in the United States in the preceding year. The winning author must be either a citizen or a resident of the United States of America. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI5.6. Use evidence from an informational text to support analysis of paragraph structure (See CCSS W.8.9).
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RI6.CCR. Anchor Standard: Assess how point of view or purpose shapes the content and style of a text.
8.RI6. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints.
8.RI6.1. Identify the author’s purpose (format, text features, key ideas) and point of view (word choice, punctuation, emphasis on ideas).
Author's Purpose
The Author's Purpose is the reason that the author wrote the piece. If the author's purpose is to inform, he/she plans to teach the reader. If the author's purpose is to entertain, he/she plans to amuse the reader. If the author's purpose is to persuade, he/she plans to convince the reader to believe his/her point of view. If the author's purpose is to create a mood, he/she plans to use much description to stir emotions in the reader. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Text Features
What are Text Features? The elements of a textbook that are useful in helping to understand the content of the book are called the text features. An effective reader uses the text features to preview the textbook before beginning to read: The title page contains the title of the book, the author, the publisher, and the place where the book was published. The glossary contains the definitions of words from the textbook. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.RI6.4. Use words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationships between claims, counterclaims, and reasons (See CCSS W.8.1c).
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Integration of Knowledge and Ideas

RI7.CCR. Anchor Standard: Integrate and evaluate content presented in diverse media and formats, including visually and quantitatively, as well as in words.
8.RI7. Evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using different mediums (e.g., print or digital text, video, multimedia) to present a particular topic or idea.
8.RI7.1. Draw conclusions about the positive and negative aspects of a text, audio, or visual version as a means of presentation.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI7.4. Use evidence from informational sources to support analysis and research (See CCSS W.8.9).
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RI8.CCR. Anchor Standard: Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, including the validity of the reasoning as well as the relevance and sufficiency of the evidence.
8.RI8. Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
8.RI8.2. Assess the value of the argument based upon supported claims.
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI8.3. Identify immaterial support.
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI8.4. Assess the credibility and accuracy of evidence (See CCSS W.8.8).
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI8.5. Use knowledge of words, phrases, and clauses to clarify the relationship among claims and support (See CCSS W.8.1c).
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI8.6. Delineate an argument and specific claims, evaluating the credibility of reasoning and the relevance and adequacy of the evidence (See CCSS SL.8.3).
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI8.7. (See MD SLM.6-8.4.0)
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
RI9.CCR. Anchor Standard: Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
8.RI9. Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation.
8.RI9.2. Determine the credibility of each text.
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI9.4. Draw conclusions about the purpose of opposing facts or interpretation of the facts.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI9.5. Use evidence from informational texts to support analysis (See CCSS W.8.9).
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.RI9.6. Present findings using pertinent evidence (See CCSS SL.8.4).
Expository Text
Expository writing explains a topic(s) to the reader. This type of writing may also inform the reader, or compare and contrast different subjects. Example: "How To," or Process Directions: How to Climb a Rock Wall, How to Train for a Marathon. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

MD.W. Standards for Writing (W)

Text Types and Purposes

W1.CCR. Anchor Standard: Write arguments to support claims in an analysis of substantive topics or texts, using valid reasoning and relevant and sufficient evidence.
8.W1-b. Write arguments to support claims with clear reasons and relevant evidence – Support claim(s) with logical reasoning and relevant evidence, using accurate, credible sources and demonstrating an understanding of the topic or text.
8.W1-b.3. Compose a draft of the body with attention to: effective organization of support for a claim or claims; subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement (See CCSS L.8.2e); formation of complete sentences (See CCSS L.8.1f); using verbs in the passive and active voice (See CCSS L.1b.8); frequently confused words (See CCSS L.8.1g); spelling correctly (See CCSS L.8.2c); recognition of inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person (See CCSS L.8.1c).
Spelling
Are There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Subject and Verb Agreement
What Is Subject and Verb Agreement? Whether a word is singular or plural is called its number. In a sentence, the subject and the verb must agree in number. Singular subject = singular verb; Plural subject = plural verb. The subject of a sentence is not found in the prepositional phrase. The coach, along with the soccer players, is celebrating. The subject of the sentence is coach, not soccer players, so the subject is singular. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Spelling
Are There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. A memory device may be of use: c-a-p-i-t-o-l is the spelling for our nation’s Capitol Building; the "o" looks like the dome of the Capitol Building. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
W2.CCR. Anchor Standard: Write informative/explanatory texts to examine and convey complex ideas and information clearly and accurately through the effective selection, organization, and analysis of content.
8.W2-a. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and covey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content – Introduce a topic clearly, previewing what is to follow; organize ideas, concepts, and information into broader categories; include formatting (e.g., headings) graphics (e.g., charts, tables) and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
8.W2-a.1. Adapt planning and prewriting to address the demands of an informative text, including: refining the focus of a topic; gathering information on a specific topic (See MD SLM 6-8 2A1, as needed); examining information to determine the ideas and concepts; effectively organizing of information within an established structure (See CCSS W.6.5); including appropriate text features to aid understanding.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.W2-b. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and covey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content – Develop the topic with relevant, well-chosen facts, definition, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples.
8.W2-b.1. Gather information about a topic and evaluate that information from a variety of reliable print and digital sources (See CCSS RI.8.7, W.8).
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.W2-b.2. Determine the most effective information gathered from a variety of reliable sources (See MD SLM.6-8.2A1).
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.W2-b.3. Compose a draft of the body with attention to: effective organization of information (See CCSS W.8.5); recognition of inappropriate shifts in pronoun number and person (See CCSS L.6.1c); subject-verb and pronoun antecedent agreement (See CCSS L.3.1f); formation of complete sentences (See CCSS L.4.1f); frequently confused words (See CCSS L.4.1g); recognition of variations from standard English and use of strategies to improve expression in conventional language (See CCSS L.6.1e); function of gerunds, participles, and infinitives in sentences (See CCSS L.8.1a).
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Subject and Verb Agreement
What Is Subject and Verb Agreement? Whether a word is singular or plural is called its number. In a sentence, the subject and the verb must agree in number. Singular subject = singular verb; Plural subject = plural verb. The subject of a sentence is not found in the prepositional phrase. The coach, along with the soccer players, is celebrating. The subject of the sentence is coach, not soccer players, so the subject is singular. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles
What is a Gerund? A gerund is a verb that is used as a noun. A gerund is formed by adding -ing to the present form of a verb. What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verb that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The word to is known as the sign of the infinitive. What is a Participle? A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective. The two types of participles are present participles and past participles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.W2-c. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and covey ideas, concepts, and information through the selection, organization, and analysis of relevant content – Use appropriate and varied transitions to create cohesion and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
8.W2-c.2. Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words. (CCSS L.8.5b)
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
W3.CCR. Anchor Standard: Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, well-chosen details, and well-structured event sequences.
8.W3-b. Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, relevant descriptive details, and well-structured event sequences – Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, pacing, and description, and reflection to develop experiences, events, and/or characters.
8.W3-b.3. Compose with attention to: subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement (See CCSS L.3.1f); choosing words and phrases for effect and to convey ideas precisely (See CCSS L.3.3a); formation of complete sentences (See CCSS L.4.1f); varying sentence patterns for meaning, reader/listener interest, and style (See CCSS L.7.3a); maintaining consistency in style and tone (See CCSS L.6.3b); choosing language that expresses ideas precisely and concisely, recognizing and eliminating wordiness and redundancy (See CCSS L.7.3a); using verbs in active and passive voice and conditional and subjunctive mood for effect (See CCSS L.8.3a).
Subject and Verb Agreement
What Is Subject and Verb Agreement? Whether a word is singular or plural is called its number. In a sentence, the subject and the verb must agree in number. Singular subject = singular verb; Plural subject = plural verb. The subject of a sentence is not found in the prepositional phrase. The coach, along with the soccer players, is celebrating. The subject of the sentence is coach, not soccer players, so the subject is singular. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

Production and Distribution of Writing

W4.CCR. Anchor Standard: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to the task, purpose and audience.
8.W4. Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)
8.W4.1. See W1, W2, W3, and W7 of CCSC Framework for specific application.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
W6.CCR. Anchor Standard: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and to interact and collaborate with others.
8.W6. Use technology, including the Internet, to produce and publish writing and present the relationships between information and ideas efficiently as well as to interact and collaborate with others.
8.W6.2. Integrate multimedia and visual displays into presentations to clarify information, strengthen claims and evidence, and add interest. (CCSS SL.8.5)
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.W6.8. Use technology to locate, evaluate, and organize information (See MD TL 8 5A1, 5B1).
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Research to Build and Present Knowledge

W8.CCR. Anchor Standard: Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources, assess the credibility and accuracy of each source, and integrate the information while avoiding plagiarism.
8.W8. Gather relevant information from multiple print and digital sources; using search terms effectively; assess the credibility of each source; and quote or paraphrase the data and conclusions of others while avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
8.W8.4. Evaluate and analyze the quality, accuracy, and sufficiency of notes (See MD SLM.6-8.4A1.a, 4A1.b, 4A1.c, 4A1.d, 4A1.e).
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
W9.CCR. Anchor Standard: Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
8.W9-b. Draw evidence from literary or informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research – Apply grade 8 Reading standards to literary nonfiction (e.g., “Delineate and evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text, assessing whether the reasoning is sound and the evidence is relevant and sufficient; recognize when irrelevant evidence is introduced”).
8.W9-b.1. Write in response to grade-level print, nonprint, and digital literary or informational text(s).
Persuasive Text
What is Persuasive Text? Persuade means to convince. In persuasive text, the author attempts to convince the reader to believe that the author's viewpoint is correct. Some common persuasive techniques are: Bandwagon, Stacking the Deck, Testimonials, Citing Statistics, and Emotional Words. An author uses the Bandwagon technique when he/she tries to make us believe that we should do something because everyone is doing it. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Range of Writing

W10.CCR. Anchor Standard: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks, purposes, and audiences.
8.W10. Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection, and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
8.W10.1. Adjust the writing process as necessary for different grade-appropriate writing tasks, purposes, and audiences.
Process Writing
The stages that writers go through in order to complete a written piece are called the writing process, or process writing. Examples: The stage at which writers plan their writing is called the prewriting stage. The stage at which writers get their ideas down on paper is called the drafting stage. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

MD.SL. Standards for Speaking and Listening (SL)

Comprehension and Collaboration

SL1.CCR. Anchor Standard: Prepare for and participate effectively in a range of conversations and collaborations with diverse partners, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
8.SL1-a. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly – Come to discussions prepared, having read or researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence on the topic, text, or issue to probe and reflect on ideas under discussion.
8.SL1-a.6. Access prior knowledge to extend the topic under discussion.
Conducting Interviews and Discussions
What is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.SL1-b. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly – Follow rules for collegial discussions and decision-making, track progress toward specific goals and deadlines, and define individual roles as needed.
8.SL1-b.1. Apply self-monitoring strategies to establish and adjust appropriate tone, body language, and vocabulary.
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.SL1-b.3. Come to consensus on and monitor specific benchmarks to evaluate progress toward meeting discussion goals and deadlines.
Conducting Interviews and Discussions
What is an Interview? A conversation in which the purpose is to gather information is known as an interview. An effective interview should have a clear purpose. Before an interview, the interviewer should prepare a list of questions. An interviewer should make an appointment with the person he/she is interviewing. An interviewer should be prompt for his/her appointment. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.SL1-c. Engage effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher led) with diverse partners on grade 8 topics and texts, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly – Pose questions that connect the ideas of several speakers and respond to others’ questions and comments with relevant evidence, observations, and ideas.
8.SL1-c.4. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
SL2.CCR. Anchor Standard: Integrate and evaluate information presented in diverse media and formats, including visually, quantitatively, and orally.
8.SL2. Analyze the purpose of information presented in diverse media and formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) and evaluate the motives (e.g., social, commercial, political) behind its presentation.
8.SL2.2. Connect specific information presented in diverse media or formats to the larger motive or intent of the text.
Listening and Viewing
An effective listener: has eye contact with the speaker, listens for the purpose of the speech, asks the speaker questions at the appropriate time, does not interrupt the speaker. An effective viewer: looks for the purpose in an advertisement, notices the date in a magazine or newspaper, searches for the labels on exhibits. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
SL3.CCR. Anchor Standard: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric.
8.SL3. Delineate a speaker’s argument and specific claims, evaluating the soundness of the reasoning and relevance and sufficiency of the evidence and identifying when irrelevant evidence is introduced.
8.SL3.3. Determine an author’s point of view or purpose in a text and analyze how the author acknowledges and responds to conflicting evidence or viewpoints (See CCSC RI.8.6).
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.SL3.6. Identify evidence that is irrelevant to the claim(s) and explain the effect of that evidence on the argument.
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas

SL4.CCR. Anchor Standard: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
8.SL4. Present claims and findings, emphasizing salient points in a focused, coherent manner with relevant evidence, sound valid reasoning, and well-chosen details; use appropriate eye contact, adequate volumes, and clear pronunciation.
8.SL4.1. Adopt the behaviors of effective speakers as appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.SL4.4. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. (CCSS L.8.1)
Usage
What Is Usage? The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Examples: a and an: Use a before a word that starts with a consonant sound and an before a word that has a vowel sound (a cartoon, an orangutan). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Usage
The way in which the English language is used is known as usage. To speak and write our language properly, certain rules must be followed. Some Usage Guidelines for English:
Who and whom. Who is a subject. Whom is an object. Who went to the nurse's office? You expect to go to the dance with whom? Read more...
iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
SL6.CCR. Anchor Standard: Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and communicative tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate.
8.SL6. Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. (See grade 8 Language standards 1 and 3 on page 52 for specific expectations.)
8.SL6.1. Demonstrate control of spoken language by adjusting speech to varying contexts and tasks.
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.SL6.2. See CCSS L.8.1, L.8.2, and L.8.3 for specific grade-level expectations.
Speaking
Speaking, a type of communication, can be categorized into formal speaking and informal speaking. Informal speaking involves a situation where a speaker does not prepare ahead of time to speak, like answering the telephone and introducing people to each other. A prepared speech is an example of formal speaking. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1

MD.L. Standards for Language (L)

Conventions of Standard English

L1.CCR. Anchor Standard: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking.
8.L1-a. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking – Explain the function of verbals (gerunds, participles, infinitives) in general and their function in particular sentences.
8.L1-a.1. Apply an understanding of the formation and function of verbals and verbal phrases.
Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles
What is a Gerund? A gerund is a verb that is used as a noun. A gerund is formed by adding -ing to the present form of a verb. What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verb that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The word to is known as the sign of the infinitive. What is a Participle? A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective. The two types of participles are present participles and past participles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L1-a.2. Use precise words, relevant descriptive details and sensory language to convey experiences (See CCSS W.8.3d).
Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles
What is a Gerund? A gerund is a verb that is used as a noun. A gerund is formed by adding -ing to the present form of a verb. What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verb that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The word to is known as the sign of the infinitive. What is a Participle? A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective. The two types of participles are present participles and past participles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L1-a.3. Analyze the use of verbals and verbal phrases in professional, peer, and their own writing.
Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles
What is a Gerund? A gerund is a verb that is used as a noun. A gerund is formed by adding -ing to the present form of a verb. What is an Infinitive? An infinitive is a verb that is used as a noun, adjective, or adverb. The word to is known as the sign of the infinitive. What is a Participle? A participle is a verb that is used as an adjective. The two types of participles are present participles and past participles. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L1-c. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking – Form and use verbs in the indicative, imperative, interrogative, conditional, and subjunctive mood.
8.L1-c.1. Apply an understanding of the formation and function of verbs in various moods.
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L1-c.2. Apply an understanding of the relationship between the mood of a verb and the purpose of a sentence.
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L1-c.4. Analyze the effect of verb mood on meaning in professional, peer, and their own writing.
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L1-c.5. Strengthen writing by editing for correct mood of verbs (See CCSS W.8.5).
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L1-d. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking – Recognize and correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood.
8.L1-d.1. Apply an understanding of how an inappropriate use of verb voice and mood affects meaning (See CCSS 8 L.8.1b, 1c).
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L1-d.2. Analyze the effect of verb voice and mood on meaning in professional, peer, and their own writing.
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L1-d.3. Strengthen writing by editing to correct inappropriate shifts in verb voice and mood (See CCSS W.8.5).
Parts of Speech
A part of speech refers to the function that a particular word plays in a sentence. The eight parts of speech are: noun, verb, adjective, adverb, conjunction, interjection, preposition and pronoun. Examples: Adverb-modifies a verb, an adjective, or another adverb. Conjunction-joins words or groups of words. Interjection-expresses emotions. Preposition-relates a noun or a pronoun to another word in the sentence. Pronoun-takes the place of a noun(s). Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Verbs
What Is a Verb? A verb is the part of speech that expresses action or state of being. Examples: There are two types of verbs: action verbs (ran, jumped) and linking verbs (is, was). A linking verb is also called a verb of being. A transitive verb has an object, while an intransitive verb does not have an object. A verb phrase is made up of a verb and one or more helping verbs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Regular and Irregular Verbs
What is a Verb? A verb is the "action" or "being" part of the predicate of a sentence. The different forms of a verb are called tenses and express present, past, and future times. The principal parts of a verb are: the infinitive, the present participle, the past tense, and the past participle. Regular verbs form their past tenses by adding -d or -ed to the infinitive. Irregular verbs form their past tenses in a different way. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
L2.CCR. Anchor Standard: Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing.
8.L2-c. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing – Spell correctly.
8.L2-c.2. Use print, digital, and internalized knowledge resources to support correct spelling.
Spelling
Are There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Spelling
Are There Any Tricks to Becoming a Successful Speller? One technique for successful spelling is to say, or pronounce, the word correctly. Another technique for successful spelling is to write the word. It is helpful to refer to a dictionary for the correct spellings of questionable words. A memory device may be of use: c-a-p-i-t-o-l is the spelling for our nation’s Capitol Building; the "o" looks like the dome of the Capitol Building. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1

Vocabulary Acquisition and Use

L4.CCR. Anchor Standard: Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases by using context clues, analyzing meaningful word parts, and consulting general and specialized reference materials, as appropriate.
8.L4-a. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies – Use context (e.g., the overall meaning of a sentence or paragraph; a word’s position or function in a sentence) as a clue to the meaning of a word or phrase.
8.L4-a.1. Apply an understanding of the various types of context clues to determine word or phrase meaning.
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L4-a.2. Apply an understanding of inference and drawing conclusions to determine word or phrase meaning.
Thinking Skills
What are Thinking Skills? Thinking skills are reading tools used to better comprehend the text. Examples: Analysis-separating the text into its parts; Classifying-arranging information into categories; Comparing and Contrasting-finding likenesses and differences between items; Drawing Conclusions-coming to a decision based on the text; Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L4-b. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies – Use common, grade-appropriate Greek and Latin affixes and roots as clues to the meaning of a word (e.g., precede, recede, secede).
8.L4-b.1. Apply an understanding of basic word parts as clues to word meaning.
Structural Analysis
In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in our language: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Structural Analysis
What is Structural Analysis in Reading? In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in English: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? What are the meanings of the affixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L4-b.2. Apply an understanding of root word families to determine the meaning of a word.
Structural Analysis
In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in our language: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Structural Analysis
What is Structural Analysis in Reading? In order to derive the meanings of words, it is helpful to analyze the structure of the words in English: Is there a Latin or a Greek root word? Is the word a base word that can stand alone? Are there prefixes and suffixes added to the base word? What are the meanings of the affixes added to the base word? Is the word a shortened form of a longer word? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
8.L4-d. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 8 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies – Verify the preliminary definition of the meaning of a word or phrase (e.g., by checking the inferred meaning in context or in a dictionary).
8.L4-d.1. Apply an understanding of the skills in L4 a-c to verify word meaning.
Dictionary Skills
A dictionary is a useful tool in the study of words. Words are listed alphabetically in a dictionary so that they are easy to find. We look up words in a dictionary to find out about the word, including how to use it, what it means, and other important attributes of the word. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Using References
What is a Reference? A reference is a book or an online source where a student can find facts. Examples: Encyclopedia, Atlas, Dictionary, Thesaurus, Almanac, Magazine, Pamphlet, Catalog. What reference is the Guinness Book of World Records? Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
L5.CCR. Anchor Standard: Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings.
8.L5-b. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings – Use the relationship between particular words to better understand each of the words.
8.L5-b.1. Apply an understanding of connections between words to a critical reading of a text.
Figurative Language
FreeLiteral language uses words exactly according to their conventionally accepted meanings. Figurative use of language is the use of words or phrases that implies a non-literal meaning which does make sense. When authors use figurative language, they use similes, metaphors, hyperbole, onomatopoeia, personification and idioms to make their writing more descriptive. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Reading-Figurative Language
Figurative language is the opposite of literal language. The writer uses techniques like repetition, exaggeration, alliteration, personification, onomatopoeia, similes, and metaphors to create images in the reader's mind. Using a sound, word, or phrase more than once is known as repetition. When a writer intentionally stretches the truth, he/she is using exaggeration. When a writer repeats a consonant sound at the beginning of several words in a row, he/she is using alliteration. Poems are divided into groups of lines called stanzas. Words that end with the same sound are called rhyming words. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L5-c. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings – Distinguish among the connotations (associations) of words with similar denotations (definitions) (e.g., bullheaded, willful, firm, persistent, resolute).
8.L5-c.1. Apply an understanding of connotation to judge word choice.
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L5-c.2. Use precise words to capture the action and convey experiences and events (See CCSS W.8.3d).
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
8.L5-c.3. Analyze professional, peer, and their own writing to determine how word choice contributes to meaning.
Vocabulary
What Is Vocabulary? Vocabulary refers to a collection of words. Our English vocabulary developed in a variety of ways: Names of people and places provide some English words. Rudolf Diesel invented an engine that is named after him. The first letters of words, called acronyms, provide new words for our language. Shortened words provide some new English words. The word hamburger provides the shortened word burger. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Standards

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