Colorado Academic Standards (CAS) for Sixth Grade Science

Birds and Mammals
A bird is an endothermic vertebrate that lays eggs, has feathers, and has a four- chambered heart. A mammal is an endothermic vertebrate that has skin covered with fur or hair, a four-chambered heart, a wide arrangement of teeth, and young that are born alive and feed by milk that was produced by the mother’s body. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Cell Transport
Active and Passive Cell transport. There are three main types of passive transport - Diffusion, Osmosis and Facilitated Diffusion. There are two types of active transport - Primary (direct) and Secondary (indirect). Read more...iWorksheets: 2Vocabulary Sets: 2
Cells: The Basic Units of Life
The cell is the basic building blocks of all living organisms. There are many structures within the cell. The structures within the cell are known as organelles, which are all of the structures within the cell that carry out specific functions. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Diversity of life
There are many characteristics that scientists use to determine if something is alive. The characteristics are very specific and are applicable to all of the different species that exist on our planet. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Earth's Atmosphere
FreeThe Earth is unique in our solar system because it has an atmosphere that can support life. By comparison, Venus has an atmosphere that is high in ammonia and other caustic gases; it is so dense that it would crush a human. On the other hand, Mars has no atmosphere at all. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 6
Earth's energy resources
Renewable resources are resources that can be replenished in a reasonable amount of time. Nonrenewable resources are resources that, once consumed, cannot be replaced. Because oil, natural gas, and coal are the products of plants and organisms, they are known as fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are ultimately a limited resource, it is important to develop and use renewable energy resources. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Earth's Fresh Water
Fresh water moves over the surface by an interconnected system of streams and rivers. Small streams that feed water into larger rivers are called tributaries. Rivers are closely interconnected and flow from higher to lower elevations where the water collects in larger and larger rivers until it ultimately flows into the oceans. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Electricity
Charged Particles. Electric charges are either positive (+) or negative (-). The protons in an atom have a positive charge and the electrons around the atom have a negative charge. If two particles have similar charges, they repel each other, but, if they have opposite charges, they attract each other. This explains why an atom holds together. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Electromagnetism
The production of a magnetic field around an electrical current is called electromagnetism. The placement of an electric current in a preexisting magnetic field can cause motion. When this happens, electrical energy is transformed into mechanical energy. The use of electrical energy to produce mechanical energy is the principle behind the workings of an electric motor. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Fishes, Amphibians, and Reptiles
Fish reproduce using external fertilization. External fertilization is when the female’s eggs are meeting with the male’s sperm outside of the female’s body. Three major groups are the jawless fish, cartilaginous fish, and bony fish. An amphibian is a vertebrate that is ectothermic. Most amphibians live the beginning of their lives in the water. A reptile is a vertebrate that is ectothermic and has scaly skin and a pair of lungs. Lizards, snakes, turtles, tortoises, and crocodiles are all examples of reptiles. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 5
Genetics - Study of Heredity
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 8
Groundwater Resources
Groundwater is fresh water stored in regolith and bedrock. Even though solid rock like granite or marble has no pores, it often has a series of cracks and possibly faults. Water accumulates in the cracks in solid bedrock and, at times, is a source of water. A layer of rock material that can store water and allow the movement of water through the ground is called an aquifer. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Introduction to Animals
Scientists have discovered about 1.2 million different species of animals on our planet. Planet Earth is home to 8.7 million species, scientists estimate. Animals have adapted to feed on different types of food. There are animals that eat only animals (carnivores), animals that eat only plants (herbivores), and animals that eat both plants and animals (omnivores). Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Introduction to earth science
The field of Geology includes a number of specialized disciplines including: Mineralogy - the study of minerals, Paleontology - the study of fossils, Petrology - the study of rocks, Geophysics - the study of the physics of the Earth and its atmosphere, Meteorology - the study of weather and weather prediction, Seismology - the study of earthquakes, and Volcanology - the study of volcanoes. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Introduction to matter
Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Some of its properties are physical and would include such things as color, volume and weight. Other properties are chemical and deal with how matter chemically reacts with other materials. Matter can undergo both physical and chemical changes. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Magnetism
A magnet is any substance that attracts the element iron or anything with iron in it. All magnets have opposite ends or poles. These are referred to as the north and south poles. In addition, because of polarity, all magnets will point toward the magnetic north pole of the earth. While the greatest magnetic force is at the poles, there is some degree of magnetism all around a magnet. This is called the magnetic field. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Maps as models of the earth/Contour models
Geologists use a variety of different types of maps to model or depict the three-dimensional Earth on a two-dimensional surface. Each type of map serves a purpose because each type has its special strengths: Topographic Maps, Mercator Projections, Conic Projections, Azimuthal Projections. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Mollusks, Arthropods and Echinoderms
FreeA molusk is an invertibrate that has an un-segmented, soft body that is almost always protected by outer shells. Snails, octopuses, clams, and oysters are all species of mollusks. Arthropods are invertebrates with external skeletons, segmented bodies, and appendages. Appendages are structures that are jointed and attached to the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 7
Moving and Controlling the Body
Tissues are collections of cells of different types that interact to support the function of the tissues, organs and overall organ system. The brain and spinal cord communicate with all other parts of the body through the nerves that make up the peripheral nervous system. Sensory neurons carry impulses toward the brains and spinal cord. Motor neurons carry impulses away from the brain and interneurons carry impulses within the brain and spinal cord. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Our impact on earth
Any waste substance that is added to a natural system in amounts greater than that natural system can break it down or eliminate it is called pollution. The waste substance itself is the pollutant. A natural resource that can be replenished is called a renewable resource. In most cases, water is a renewable resource. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Plant Processes
Photosynthesis is a process powered by sunlight that uses carbon dioxide and water to produce oxygen and food. The process requires six molecules of water and six molecules of carbon dioxide. These molecules undergo chemical changes and oxygen and sugars like glucose are produced. The oxygen is let go through the stomata and the sugars are used to power cell functions. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Plant reproduction
An angiosperm is a plant that produces seeds within a fruit. Reproduction begins when the pollen from the anther is in contact with the stigma. Eventually the egg will be fertilized in the ovule that is in the ovary and turn from a zygote to an embryo inside the seed. The life cycle of angiosperms among the different species is very similar: Pollination, fertilization, and the development of fruit. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Plate Tectonics
The Earth's layers: crust, mantle, core. Plate tectonics is a scientific theory that describes the large-scale motion of plates of the Earth's crust over hot mantle rock. Plate tectonics are active on Earth since the very beginning. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Protection, Reproduction and Cooperation
The human body protects itself with non-specific defense systems that react naturally and automatically to invading organisms. Your skin, with its layers of protective tissue, is a very strong, watertight barrier to environmental pathogens. What is an Antigen? A antigen is a molecule that immune system can recognize as either part of the body or as foreign to the body. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 2
Providing Fuel and Transportation
Food is stored and processed in your stomach, so that your body can gain access to the nutrients in the food. Your body relies on what you eat and drink to maintain healthy tissues and to generate the energy. There are six categories of nutrients: carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals and water. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Vocabulary Sets: 3
Rocks
There are three major groupings of rocks: igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary. Igneous rocks form when liquid rock cools and hardens. Sedimentary rocks: Clastic, Chemical, Biochemical or organic. Metamorphic rocks: foliated and non-foliated (or massive). Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 3
Six Kingdoms of Life
The six Kingdoms are: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Fungi, Protists, Plants and Animals. Fungi include mushrooms, molds, and yeasts. Protists include some algae, paramecium, and amoeba. Eubacteria are single-celled organisms that don’t have a nucleus. Animals are divided into vertebrates and invertebrates and include mammals, amphibians, reptiles, birds and fish. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 3
Solids, liquids and gases
Matter exists in three different states or phases: solid, liquids and gases or vapors. A solid has a definite shape and volume, A liquid has a definite volume but no definite shape and A gas has neither a definite volume nor shape. Gases or vapors are influenced by three factors: temperature, volume and pressure. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Sponges, Cnidarians and Worms
Until recently, people thought that sponges were plants. The fact that they take in food puts them into the animal kingdom. When they are adults, they do not move. They attach themselves to a hard surface where they live out their lives. The structure of a sponge is very basic with some specialized tissue, but lacking organs and organ systems. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Studying and exploring space
Edwin Powell Hubble (1889-1953) was an American astronomer who, in 1923, showed that the universe is expanding. He used photographs to prove that there are galaxies beyond our own. Prior to this, scientists believed that our galaxy was the entire universe. In 1990, the Hubble Space Telescope (clearly named in honor of the great 20th century astronomer) was launched by NASA and has provided some of the most spectacular images of the universe ever seen. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Weather patterns
Air masses are extensive bodies of air that have similar temperatures and water content throughout. The boundary or line delineating different air masses is the weather front. A small weather system that has intense energy that creates heavy rains, high winds, and lightning is called a thunderstorm. A hurricane is an extremely large, tropical, rotating weather system that has sustained winds of at least 119 km/hr. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 4
Work, Power & Simple Machines
. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Vocabulary Sets: 2

CO.1. Physical Science

1.1. All matter is made of atoms, which are far too small to see directly through a light microscope. Elements have unique atoms and thus, unique properties. Atoms themselves are made of even smaller particles. Students can:

1.1.a. Identify evidence that suggests there is a fundamental building block of matter
Elements, mixtures and compounds
Elements are a basic (simple) kind of matter. They can’t be broken down into simpler parts and still keep their properties because they are in the simplest form. A solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent. Solubility refers to the ability of one substance to dissolve into another substance. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

1.2. Atoms may stick together in well-defined molecules or be packed together in large arrays. Different arrangements of atoms into groups compose all substances. Students can:

1.2.a. Explain the similarities and differences between elements and compounds
Elements, mixtures and compounds
Elements are a basic (simple) kind of matter. They can’t be broken down into simpler parts and still keep their properties because they are in the simplest form. A solute is the substance that is dissolved in the solvent. Solubility refers to the ability of one substance to dissolve into another substance. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

1.4. Distinguish among, explain, and apply the relationships among mass, weight, volume, and density. Students can:

1.4.b. Predict how changes in acceleration due to gravity will affect the mass and weight of an object
Properties of matter and Energy
What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Kinetic energy is energy that is happening now; it is energy in motion. Potential energy is energy that is waiting to happen; it is stored energy. How does heat get transferred: By conduction, by convection and by radiation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Newton's Laws of motion
What is motion? Motion is the process of an object changing its place or its position. Motion is not speed. Speed is the rate an object changes position. Newton's law of motion. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
1.4.c. Predict how mass, weight, and volume affect density
Properties of matter and Energy
What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Kinetic energy is energy that is happening now; it is energy in motion. Potential energy is energy that is waiting to happen; it is stored energy. How does heat get transferred: By conduction, by convection and by radiation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
1.4.d. Measure mass and volume, and use these quantities to calculate density
Properties of matter and Energy
What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Kinetic energy is energy that is happening now; it is energy in motion. Potential energy is energy that is waiting to happen; it is stored energy. How does heat get transferred: By conduction, by convection and by radiation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
1.4.e. Use tools to gather, view, analyze, and report results for scientific investigations about the relationships among mass, weight, volume, and density
Properties of matter and Energy
What is matter? Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Kinetic energy is energy that is happening now; it is energy in motion. Potential energy is energy that is waiting to happen; it is stored energy. How does heat get transferred: By conduction, by convection and by radiation. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

CO.2. Life Science

2.1. Changes in environmental conditions can affect the survival of individual organisms, populations, and entire species. Students can:

2.1.a. Interpret and analyze data about changes in environmental conditions - such as climate change - and populations that support a claim describing why a specific population might be increasing or decreasing
Energy and ecosystems
An ecosystem includes all the living and non-living things in an area. This includes populations and communities of many different animals. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3

2.2. Organisms interact with each other and their environment in various ways that create a flow of energy and cycling of matter in an ecosystem. Students can:

2.2.a. Develop, communicate, and justify an evidence-based explanation about why there generally are more producers than consumers in an ecosystem
Energy and ecosystems
An ecosystem includes all the living and non-living things in an area. This includes populations and communities of many different animals. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
2.2.b. Design a food web diagram to show the flow of energy through an ecosystem
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
2.2.c. Compare and contrast the flow of energy with the cycling of matter in ecosystems
Energy and ecosystems
An ecosystem includes all the living and non-living things in an area. This includes populations and communities of many different animals. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
Interactions among living things
An important and essential interaction among living things involves the flow of energy within an environment. All living organisms need energy to survive! Energy moves through an environment through food chains and food webs. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

CO.3. Earth Systems Science

3.1. Complex interrelationships exist between Earth's structure and natural processes that over time are both constructive and destructive. Students can:

3.1.b. Gather, analyze and communicate evidence from text and other sources that explains the formation of Earth's surface features
Landforms, Rocks and soil
Landsforms are features that make up the Earth's surface. They include mountains, plateaus, canyons, deltas, hills, valleys, and more... The Rock cycle, Volcanoes. How do Earthquakes happen? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
Minerals of Earth's crust
Minerals are solid elements formed naturally in the Earth’s surface. Every mineral has a unique chemical composition – a mix of the chemicals that formed it. Rocks are made up of minerals, sometimes more than one kind of mineral! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4
3.1.c. Use or create a computer simulation for Earth's changing crust
Landforms, Rocks and soil
Landsforms are features that make up the Earth's surface. They include mountains, plateaus, canyons, deltas, hills, valleys, and more... The Rock cycle, Volcanoes. How do Earthquakes happen? Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :4

3.2. Water on Earth is distributed and circulated through oceans, glaciers, rivers, ground water, and the atmosphere. Students can:

3.2.a. Gather and analyze data from a variety of print resources and investigations to account for local and world-wide water circulation and distribution patterns
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
3.2.b. Use evidence to model how water is transferred throughout the earth
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
3.2.d. Identify the various causes and effects of water pollution in local and world water distributions
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3
3.2.e. Describe where water goes after it is used in houses or buildings
Earth's freshwater and atmosphere
Planet Earth (the planet on which we happen to live) spins on an imaginary line called an axis. One spin around on its axis is called a revolution. As the earth rotates, the areas facing the Sun slowly change, and that means the time of day and the temperatures change.The sun is the main energy supply for the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :3

3.3. Earth's natural resources provide the foundation for human society's physical needs. Many natural resources are nonrenewable on human timescales, while others can be renewed or recycled. Students can:

3.3.a. Research and evaluate data and information to learn about the types and availability of various natural resources, and use this knowledge to make evidence-based decisions
Earth's oceans
Oceans are a natural resource for salt and the fish and other sea animals we eat. Ocean Currents. Ocean Tides, Trenches, Mid-Ocean Ridges, Seamounts, The Flat Abyssal Plains, The Continental Shelf. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
3.3.b. Identify and evaluate types and availability of renewable and nonrenewable resources
Energy resources
A renewable resource is a resource that can be naturally restored or at least replenished as it is needed: The power of WIND, the power of WATER, the power of the SUN, Geothermal energy (heat from the earth), the Energy of TRASH. Fossil fuels - Crude Oil, Coal, Natural Gas - are nonrenewable resources. These types of resources take much longer to replace than most societies can wait. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
3.3.c. Use direct and indirect evidence to determine the types of resources and their applications used in communities
Energy resources
A renewable resource is a resource that can be naturally restored or at least replenished as it is needed: The power of WIND, the power of WATER, the power of the SUN, Geothermal energy (heat from the earth), the Energy of TRASH. Fossil fuels - Crude Oil, Coal, Natural Gas - are nonrenewable resources. These types of resources take much longer to replace than most societies can wait. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
3.3.d. Research and critically evaluate data and information about the advantages and disadvantages of using fossil fuels and alternative energy sources
Energy resources
A renewable resource is a resource that can be naturally restored or at least replenished as it is needed: The power of WIND, the power of WATER, the power of the SUN, Geothermal energy (heat from the earth), the Energy of TRASH. Fossil fuels - Crude Oil, Coal, Natural Gas - are nonrenewable resources. These types of resources take much longer to replace than most societies can wait. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Standards

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