Delaware Standards 6th Grade Science Activities
Printable Sixth Grade Science Worksheets and Study Guides.
Earth's Atmosphere Sixth Grade Science Weather and climate Fourth Grade Science Life Cycles of Plants and Animals Third Grade Science Minerals of Earth's crust Fifth Grade Science The nervous system Eighth Grade Science The nervous system Eighth Grade Science The nervous system Eighth Grade Science
DE.1. Nature and Application of Science and Technology
1.1. Understandings and Abilities of Scientific Inquiry
Enduring Understanding: Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically-oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations, connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying the explanation.
1.1.C. Understand that: In a scientific investigation, data collection involves making precise measurements and keeping accurate records so that others can replicate the experiment.1.1.C.1. Be able to: Accurately collect data through the selection and use of tools and techniques appropriate to the investigation. Construct tables, diagrams and graphs, showing relationships between two variables, to display and facilitate analysis of data. Compare and question results with and from other students. (Level: Essential)
1.1.D. Understand that: There is much experimental and observational evidence that supports a large body of knowledge. The scientific community supports known information until new experimental evidence arises that does not match existing explanations. This leads to the evolution of the scientific body of knowledge.1.1.D.1. Be able to: Form explanations based on accurate and logical analysis of evidence. Revise the explanation using alternative descriptions, predictions, models and knowledge from other sources as well as results of further investigation. (Level: Essential)
1.1.E. Understand that: Evaluating the explanations proposed by others involves examining and comparing evidence, identifying faulty reasoning, pointing out statements that go beyond the evidence, and suggesting alternative explanations for the same observations. Conflicting data or conflicting interpretations of the same data suggest the need for further investigation. Continued investigation can lead to greater understanding and resolution of the conflict.1.1.E.1. Be able to: Communicate scientific procedures, data, and explanations to enable the replication of results. Use computer technology to assist in communicating these results. Critical review is important in the analysis of these results. (Level: Important)
1.1.F. Understand that: Scientific habits of mind and other sources of knowledge and skills are essential to scientific inquiry. Habits of mind include tolerance of ambiguity, skepticism, openness to new ideas, and objectivity. Other knowledge and skills include mathematics, reading, writing, and technology.1.1.F.1. Be able to: Use mathematics, reading, writing, and technology when conducting scientific inquiries. (Level: Important)
1.2. Science, Technology, and Society
Enduring Understanding: The development of technology and advancement in science influence and drive each other forward.
1.2.B. Science and technology in society are driven by the following factors: economical, political, cultural, social, and environmental. Increased scientific knowledge and technology create changes that can be beneficial or detrimental to individuals or society through impact on human health and the environment. (Level: Compact)
DE.2. Materials and Their Properties
2.1. Properties and Structure of Materials
Enduring Understanding: The structures of materials determine their properties.
2.1.A. All matter consists of particles too small to be seen with the naked eye. The arrangement, motion, and interaction of these particles determine the three states of matter (solid, liquid, and gas). Particles in all three states are in constant motion. In the solid state, tightly packed particles have a limited range of motion. In the liquid state, particles are loosely packed and move past each other. In the gaseous state, particles are free to move. (Level: Essential)
2.1.B. A phase change may occur when a material absorbs or releases heat energy. Changes in phase do not change the particles but do change how they are arranged. (Level: Important)
2.1.C. Some physical properties, such as mass and volume, depend upon the amount of material. Other physical properties, such as density and melting point, are independent of the quantity of material. Density and melting point are unique physical properties for a material. Tools such as microscopes, scales, beakers, graduated cylinders, Celsius thermometers, and metric rulers are used to measure physical properties. (Level: Essential)
2.1.D. An important property of materials is their ability to conduct heat. Some materials, such as certain metals, are excellent conductors of heat while other materials, such as glass, are poor conductors (good thermal insulators). (Level: Important)
2.1.E. Exposure to energy, such as light and heat, may change the physical properties of materials. (Level: Compact)
2.2. Mixtures and Solutions
Enduring Understanding: The properties of a mixture are based on the properties of its components.
2.2.A. Mixtures can be homogeneous or heterogeneous. Mixtures may be solids, liquids, and/or gases. Most materials are physical mixtures consisting of different components in varying concentrations. The individual components can be separated using the components' unique physical properties. (Level: Essential)
2.2.B. Solutions are homogenous mixtures of two or more components. The properties of a solution depend on the nature and concentration of the solute(s) and the nature of the solvent(s). (Level: Important)
2.2.E. In mixtures, individual components move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration to eliminate concentration differences. Diffusion is the movement of individual components. (Level: Compact)
DE.3. Energy and Its Effects
3.1. The Forms and Sources of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).
3.1.A. Energy from the Sun takes the form of electromagnetic waves such as infrared, visible, and ultraviolet electromagnetic waves. The radiation from the sun consists of a range of energies in the electromagnetic spectrum. (Level: Essential)
3.1.B. Mechanical energy comes from the motion (kinetic energy) and position (potential energy) of objects. Gravitational potential energy and elastic potential energy are important forms of potential energy that contribute to the mechanical energy of objects. (Level: Essential)
3.1.C. Sound energy is the energy that takes the form of mechanical waves passing through objects or substances. The energy delivered by a wave in a given unit of time is determined by the amplitude and frequency of the wave. (Level: Important)
3.1.D. Heat energy comes from the random motion of the particles in an object or substance. Temperature is a measure of the motion of the particles. The higher the temperature of the material, the greater the motion of the particles. (Level: Important)
3.1.E. Electrical energy is a form of energy that can be transferred by moving charges through a complete circuit. (Level: Essential)
3.2. Forces and the Transfer of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.
3.2.A. When the forces acting on an object are balanced, its motion will not change. Unbalanced forces will cause the object's motion to change. Changes in motion depend upon the size and direction of the total unbalanced force exerted on the object. (Level: Essential)
3.2.B. Gravity is a force that acts between masses over very large distances. Near the Earth's surface, gravity pulls objects and substances vertically downward. (Level: Important)
3.2.C. Forces can be used to transfer energy from one object to another. Simple machines are used to transfer energy in order to simplify difficult tasks. (Level: Essential)
3.2.D. When energy from the sun is transferred to objects and substances, it can be transformed into a variety of energy forms. (Level: Essential)
3.2.E. Light energy radiates from a source and travels in straight lines. Light is reflected, refracted, transmitted, and absorbed differently by different materials. To see an object, light energy emitted or reflected from the object must enter the eye. (Level: Important)
3.2.F. The addition or removal of heat energy from a material changes its temperature or its physical state. (Level: Important)
3.2.G. Heat energy is transported by conduction, convection, and radiation. Heat energy transfers from warmer substances to cooler substances until they reach the same temperature. (Level: Essential)
3.2.H. Electrical systems can be designed to perform a variety of tasks. Series or parallel circuits can be used to transfer electrical energy to devices. Electrical circuits require a complete loop through which the electrical charges can pass. (Level: Important)
3.3. Energy Interacting With Materials; the Transformation and Conservation of Energy
Enduring Understanding: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.
3.3.A. Energy can be transformed from one form into another. Energy transformations often take place while energy is being transferred to another object or substance. Energy transformations and energy transfers can be used to explain how energy flows through a physical system (e.g., photosynthesis, weathering, electrical circuits). (Level: Essential)
3.3.B. When a substance absorbs heat energy, or when a different form of energy is absorbed by the substance and is transformed into heat energy, the substance usually expands. The particles within the substance do not expand but the space between the particles increases. (Level: Essential)
3.3.C. Materials may absorb some frequencies of light but not others. The selective absorption of different wavelengths of white light determines the color of most objects. (Level: Compact)
3.4. The Production, Consumption and Application of Energy
Enduring Understanding: People utilize a variety of resources to meet the basic and specific needs of life. Some of these resources cannot be replaced. Other resources can be replenished or exist in such vast quantities they are in no danger of becoming depleted. Often the energy stored in resources must be transformed into more useful forms and transported over great distances before it can be helpful to us.
3.4.A. Energy sources can be renewable or finite. Most energy used by industrial societies is derived from fossil fuel sources. Such sources are inherently limited on the Earth and are unevenly distributed geographically. Renewable energy sources vary in their availability and ease of use. (Level: Compact)
3.4.B. Technological advances throughout history have led to the discovery and use of different forms of energy, and to more efficient use of all forms of energy. These technological advances have led to increased demand for energy and have had both beneficial and detrimental effects on society. (Level: Compact)
3.4.C. Responsible use of energy requires consideration of energy availability, efficiency of its use, the environmental impact, and possible alternate sources. (Level: Compact)
DE.4. Earth in Space
4.1. The Earth/Moon/Sun System
Enduring Understanding: Observable, predictable patterns of movement in the Sun, Earth, Moon system occur because of gravitational interaction and energy from the Sun.
4.1.A. The Sun is a star that gives off radiant energy that drives Earth systems and is essential for life. The amount of radiant energy Earth receives from the Sun throughout the year is nearly constant. (Level: Essential)
4.1.B. The tilt of Earth's axis of rotation as it orbits the Sun points in the same direction with respect to the stars. The tilt and the orbital motion of Earth around the Sun cause variation in the amount of solar radiation striking a location on the Earth's surface which results in variation in the length of day/night and seasons. (Level: Essential)
4.1.C. Moon phases occur because the relative positions of Earth, Moon, and Sun change, thereby enabling us to see different amounts of the Moon's surface. (Level: Important)
4.1.D. The Moon is a natural satellite of Earth and is different than the Earth in size, atmosphere, gravity, and surface features. (Level: Compact)
4.1.E. Tides are caused by the gravitational interactions of the Sun, Moon and Earth. The Moon has a greater impact on tides because of its proximity to Earth. (Level: Compact)
4.2. The Solar System
Enduring Understanding: Most objects in the Solar System orbit the Sun and have distinctive physical characteristics and orderly motion.
4.2.A. The Sun is by far the most massive object in the Solar System, therefore gravitationally dominating all other members of the Solar System. (Level: Essential)
4.2.B. The Solar System consists of comets, asteroids, planets, and their respective satellites, most of which orbit the Sun on a plane called the ecliptic. The planets in our Solar System revolve in the same direction around the Sun in elliptical orbits that are very close to being in the same plane. Most planets rotate in the same direction with respect to the Sun. (Level: Important)
4.2.C. Planets can be categorized as inner or outer planets according to density, diameter and surface features. (Level: Compact
4.2.D. Planets and their moons have been shaped over time by common processes such as cratering, volcanism, erosion, and tectonics. The presence of life on a planet can contribute to its unique development. (Level: Compact)
4.4. Technology and Applications
Enduring Understandings: Technology expands our knowledge of the Solar System.
4.4.A. Technology, including humans landing on the Moon, robot landers and other space probes, satellites, and radio telescopes, allow scientists to investigate conditions on Earth and on other objects in the Solar System. (Level: Compact)
4.4.B. The technology used in space exploration expands our knowledge of the Universe and has many spin-offs related to everyday applications. (Level: Compact)
DE.5. Earth's Dynamic Systems
5.1. Components of Earth
Enduring Understanding: Earth's systems can be broken down into individual components which have observable measurable properties.
5.1.A. Water exists on the Earth in reservoirs (on or within the Earth's surface and atmosphere). The total amount of water in these reservoirs does not change, however, the ratio of water in solid, liquid, or gaseous form varies over time and location. (Level: Essential)
5.1.B. The movement of water among the geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere affects such things as weather systems, ocean currents, and global climate. (Level: Essential)
5.1.C. The formation of sediment and soil requires a long period of time as rocks are weathered, eroded and deposited. (Level: Important)
5.1.D. The atmosphere is a mixture having as its principle components a fixed ratio of nitrogen and oxygen and, depending on the location, variable amounts of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and dust particles. (Level: Compact)
5.2. Interactions Throughout Earth's Systems
Enduring Understanding: Earth's components form systems. These systems continually interact at different rates of time, affecting the Earth locally and globally.
5.2.A. Water cycles from one reservoir to another through the processes of evaporation, transpiration, condensation and precipitation. Energy transfers and/or transformations are associated with each of these processes. (Level: Essential)
5.2.D. Constructive processes that build up the land and the destructive processes of weathering and erosion shape and reshape the land surface. The height of Earth landforms is a result of the difference between the rate of uplift and the rate of erosion at a particular location. (Level: Important)
5.2.E. Some Earth events such as El Nino, volcanism and global warming can affect the entire Earth system and are likely the result of complex interactions among Earth spheres. (Level: Compact)
5.2.F. The atmosphere has properties that can be observed, measured, and used to predict changes in weather and to identify climatic patterns. (Level: Essential)
5.2.G. The climate at a location on Earth is the result of several interacting variables such as latitude, altitude and/or proximity to water. (Level: Essential)
5.2.H. Energy from the Sun heats the Earth unevenly causing pressure differences and air movements (convection currents) resulting in changing weather patterns. (Level: Essential)
5.2.I. Ocean currents, global winds, and storm systems, redistribute heat energy on Earth's surface and therefore affect weather and long-term climatic patterns of a region. (Level: Essential)
5.2.J. Uneven heating and cooling of the Earth's surface produce air masses that differ in density, humidity and temperature. The interaction of these air masses results in significant weather changes. (Level: Essential)
5.2.K. Past geological events and environments can be reconstructed by interpreting fossilized remains and successive layering of sedimentary rocks. (Level: Important)
5.2.L. The fit of continental coastlines, the similarity of rock types and fossilized remains provide evidence that today's continents were once a single land mass. The continents moved to their current positions on plates driven by energy from Earth's interior. (Level: Important)
5.2.M. Heat energy stored in the oceans and transferred by currents influence climate. A disruption of the circulation and temperature of the world's oceans would foster climate change and have environmental and economic consequences. (Level: Important)
5.3. Technology and Applications
Enduring Understanding: Technology enables us to better understand Earth's systems. It also allows us to analyze the impact of human activities on Earth's systems and the impact of Earth's systems on human activity.
5.3.A. Global weather data from ground measurements, satellites and radar are recorded on maps, analyzed, and used to predict local weather. (Level: Essential)
DE.6. Life Processes
6.1. Structure/Function Relationship
Enduring Understanding: Living systems, from the organismic to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
6.1.B. Living systems in all kingdoms demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function. Important levels of organization for structure and function include cells, tissues, organs, organ systems, and organisms. (Level: Important)
6.1.C. Most organisms are single celled while others are multi-cellular. Multi-cellular organisms consist of individual cells that cannot survive independently, while single-celled organisms are composed of one cell that can survive independently. (Level: Important)
6.1.D. The cell is the fundamental unit of life. Cells have basic needs for survival. They use energy, consume materials, require water, eliminate waste, and reproduce. (Level: Essential)
6.1.E. Most cells contain a set of observable structures called organelles which allow them to carry out life processes. Major organelles include vacuoles, cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria. Plant cells have a cell wall and chloroplasts. (Level: Important)
6.1.F. The human body has systems that perform functions necessary for life. Major systems of the human body include the digestive, respiratory, reproductive, and circulatory systems. (Level: Essential)
6.2. Matter and Energy Transformations
Enduring Understanding: All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain structures within the organism.
6.2.A. All organisms require energy. A general distinction among organisms is that plants use solar energy to make their own food (sugar) and animals acquire energy directly or indirectly from plants. (Level: Essential)
6.2.B. Plants use the energy from sunlight, carbon dioxide, and water to produce sugars (photosynthesis). Plants can use the food (sugar) immediately or store it for later use. (Level: Essential)
6.2.C. Most living things use sugar (from food) and oxygen to release the energy needed to carry out life processes (cellular respiration). Other materials from food are used for building and repairing cell parts. (Level: Important)
6.3. Regulation and Behavior
Enduring Understanding: Organisms respond to internal and external cues, which allow them to survive.
6.3.A. Regulation of an organism's internal environment involves sensing external changes in the environment and responding physiologically to keep conditions within the range required for survival (e.g., increasing heart rate with exertion). (Level: Compact)
6.4. Life Processes and Technology Application
Enduring Understanding: The life processes of organisms are affected by their interactions with each other and their environment, and may be altered by human manipulation.
6.4.B. The functioning and health of organisms are influenced by many factors (i.e., heredity, diet, lifestyle, bacteria, viruses, parasites, and the environment). Certain body structures and systems function to protect against disease and injury. (Level: Important)
DE.7. Diversity and Continuity of Living Things
7.1. Reproduction, Heredity and Development
Enduring Understanding: Organisms reproduce, develop, have predictable life cycles, and pass on heritable traits to their offspring.
7.1.A. Reproduction is a characteristic of all living systems and is essential to the continuation of every species. (Level: Essential
7.1.B. Some organisms reproduce asexually involving one parent. Asexual reproduction results in offspring that are genetically identical to the parent organism (clones). This process is advantageous in maintaining the genetic make-up of organisms that are successful in a specific environment. (Level: Essential)
7.1.C. Some organisms reproduce sexually involving two parents. Sexual reproduction results in offspring that have greater genetic diversity than those resulting from asexual reproduction. One-half of the offspring's genetic information comes from the ''male'' parent and one-half comes from the ''female'' parent. These genetic differences help to ensure the survival of offspring in varied environments. (Level: Essential)
7.1.D. In sexual reproduction after the egg is fertilized, each of the new cells in the developing organism receives an exact copy of the genetic information contained in the nucleus of a fertilized egg. (Level: Essential)
7.1.E. Organisms have different reproductive strategies to ensure their offspring's survival. Some organisms produce many offspring and provide little parental care. Other organisms produce few offspring and invest much time and energy in care of their offspring. (Level: Compact)
7.1.F. Chromosomes are found in the nucleus of the cell and contain genes that are made of DNA. Inherited traits of individuals are controlled by genes. (Level: Essential)
7.1.G. Chromosomes can be arranged in pairs (one-half of each pair from each parent). These pairs are approximately the same size and shape, and have similar sequences of genes. Humans have 23 pairs (46) of chromosomes. Other organisms may have different numbers of chromosomes. (Level: Important)
7.1.H. In humans, gender is determined by a pair of sex chromosomes. Females possess two X chromosomes; males an X and a Y chromosome. The sex of an embryo is determined by the sex chromosome found in the sperm cell. (Level: Important)
7.1.I. Alternative versions of genes (different alleles) account for variations in inherited characteristics (i.e., flower color). Pairs of chromosomes that have the same allele present on both chromosomes are homozygous. Pairs of chromosomes with different alleles are heterozygous. (Level: Essential)
7.1.J. A dominant trait will be expressed if the organism is heterozygous or homozygous for the trait. A recessive trait will only be expressed if the organism is homozygous for the trait. (Level: Essential)
7.1.K. Mendelian genetics can be used to predict genotypes and phenotypes of offspring resulting from sexual reproduction. (Level: Essential)
7.2. Diversity and Evolution
Enduring Understanding: The diversity and changing of life forms over many generations is the result of natural selection, in which organisms with advantageous traits survive, reproduce, and pass those traits to offspring.
7.2.A. The Earth's present day species evolved from earlier, distinctly different species. Many thousands of layers of sedimentary rock provide evidence for the long history of the Earth and for the long history of changing life forms whose remains are found in the rocks. More recently deposited rock layers are more likely to contain fossils resembling existing species. (Level: Compact)
7.2.B. Natural selection is the process by which some individuals with certain traits are more likely to survive and produce greater numbers of offspring than other organisms of the same species. Competition for resources and mates and conditions in the environment can affect which individuals survive, reproduce and pass their traits on to future generations. (Level: Essential)
7.2.E. There is a wide diversity of organisms on Earth. These organisms may be classified in a number of ways. One classification system places organisms into five kingdoms (monera, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia) based on similarities in structure. (Level: Important)
7.3. Technology Applications
Enduring Understanding: The development of technology has allowed us to apply our knowledge of genetics, reproduction, development and evolution to meet human needs and wants.
7.3.B. Knowledge gained from research in genetics is being applied to areas of human health. Geneticists and genetic counselors may use pedigrees and Punnett squares to help predict the possibility of genetic disorders in future generations. (Level: Essential)
8.1. Interactions within the Environment
Enduring Understanding: Organisms and their environments are interconnected. Changes in one part of the system will affect other parts of the system.
8.1.A. All populations living together (biotic factors) and the physical factors with which they interact (abiotic factors) compose an ecosystem. (Level: Essential)
8.1.B. Ecosystems do not have precise boundaries. All ecosystems ultimately exchange materials with one another and all influence one another. (Level: Compact
8.1.C. The Delaware Estuary is a semi-enclosed tidal body of water with a free connection to the ocean. This richly productive system, including the associated marshes, provides a variety of habitats for diverse species. This system is biologically and economically important. (Level: Compact)
8.1.D. A population consists of all individuals of a species that occur together at a given place and time. A species is a distinct biological grouping of organisms whose members interbreed in nature and produce fertile offspring. (Level: Compact)
8.1.F. In all environments organisms with similar needs may compete with one another for resources including food, water, air, space and shelter. This competition results in natural population fluctuations. (Level: Important)
8.1.H. Organisms within an ecosystem may interact symbiotically through mutualism, parasitism, and commensalism. (Level: Important)
8.2. Energy Flow and Material Cycles in the Environment
Enduring Understandings: Matter needed to sustain life is continually recycled among and between organisms and the environment. Energy from the Sun flows irreversibly through ecosystems and is conserved as organisms use and transform it.
8.2.A. In most ecosystems, energy enters as sunlight and is transformed by producers into a biologically usable form of matter through photosynthesis. That matter and energy then passes from organism to organism through food webs. Some energy is released from the system as heat. (Level: Essential)
8.2.B. Over time, matter is transferred repeatedly from one organism to another and between organisms and their physical environment. As in all material systems, the total amount of matter remains constant, even though its form and location change. (Level: Essential)
8.2.C. All organisms, including humans, are part of and depend on food webs. Food webs recycle matter continuously as organisms are decomposed after death to return food materials to the environment where it re-enters a food web. (Level: Important)
8.3. Human Impact
Enduring Understanding: Humans can alter the living and non-living factors within an ecosystem, thereby creating changes to the overall system.
8.3.A. Humans can alter the biotic and abiotic factors within an ecosystem thereby creating changes to the overall system. (Level: Essential)
8.3.B. The introduction of competing species, removal of natural habitat, alteration of native landscapes due to urban, industrial and agricultural activities, over-harvesting of species, alteration of waterways and removal of natural predators, etc., are actions that have a lasting impact on ecosystems. (Level: Essential)
8.3.C. Individuals and policymakers make decisions regarding the use of resources based on estimated personal and societal benefits and risks. Impacts on environmental systems result from these decisions. (Level: Compact)
DE.CC6-8RS/TS. Reading Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Craft and Structure
CC6-8RS/TS4. Determine the meaning of symbols, key terms, and other domain-specific words and phrases as they are used in a specific scientific or technical context relevant to grades 6-8 texts and topics.
Integration of Knowledge and Ideas
CC6-8RS/TS7. Integrate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in a text with a version of that information expressed visually (e.g., in a flowchart, diagram, model, graph, or table).
CC6-8RS/TS9. Compare and contrast the information gained from experiments, simulations, video, or multimedia sources with that gained from reading a text on the same topic.
DE.CC6-8WH/S/TS. Writing Standards for Literacy in Science and Technical Subjects 6-12
Research to Build and Present Knowledge
CC6-8WH/S/TS7. Conduct short research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question), drawing on several sources and generating additional related, focused questions that allow for multiple avenues of exploration.
Text Types and Purposes
CC6-8WH/S/TS2. Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
CC6-8WH/S/TS2f. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented.
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