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Washington Standards for Fifth Grade English Language Arts

WA.1. Communication: The student uses listening and observation skills and strategies to gain understanding.

1.2. Understands, analyzes, synthesizes, or evaluates information from a variety of sources.

1.2.1. Applies strategies to comprehend auditory and visual information.
1.2.1.a. Makes inferences (e.g., Fitness: ''I need to wear my bike helmet because I ride where the roads are busy.'').
1.2.1.c. Draws conclusions from auditory and visual information in content areas (e.g., Social Studies: ''Paul Revere's illustration of the Boston Massacre was drawn in a way to make the colonists upset with British rule.'').

WA.1. Reading: The student understands and uses different skills and strategies to read.

1.2. Use vocabulary (word meaning) strategies to comprehend text.

1.2.1. Understand and apply dictionary skills and other reference skills.
1.2.1.a. Use dictionaries, thesauruses, and glossaries to find or confirm word meanings, pronunciations, syllabication, synonyms, antonyms, parts of speech, and/or clarify shades of meaning.
1.2.1.b. Use text evidence to verify dictionary or glossary meaning.
1.2.2. Apply a variety of strategies to comprehend words and ideas in complex text.
1.2.2.b. Use abstract, derived root words, prefixes, and suffixes from Greek and Latin to analyze the meaning of complex words (e.g., collide, collision).
1.2.2.c. Use structural analysis and concept-building vocabulary strategies to understand new words and concepts in informational/expository text and literary/narrative text.
1.2.2.d. Use prior knowledge, the text, context clues, and graphic features of text to predict, clarify, and/or expand word meanings and concepts.
1.2.2.e. Self-correct, re-read, read on, and/or slow down to gain meaning of unknown words in informational/expository text and literary/narrative text.

1.3. Build vocabulary through wide reading.

1.3.1. Understand and apply new vocabulary.
1.3.1.a. Integrate new vocabulary from informational/expository text and literary/narrative text, including text from a variety of cultures and communities, into written and oral communication.
1.3.2. Understand and apply content/academic vocabulary critical to the meaning of the text. W
1.3.2.a. Identify and define content area vocabulary critical to the meaning of the text and use that knowledge to interpret the text.
1.3.2.b. Identify words that have different meanings in different content areas and determine the correct meaning from the context (e.g., property in science and social studies).
1.3.2.c. Select, from multiple choices, the meaning of words necessary to understand content area text.

1.4. Apply word recognition skills and strategies to read fluently.

1.4.3. Apply different reading rates to match text.
1.4.3.a. Adjust reading rate to match difficulty and type of text and the purposes for reading (e.g., skimming for facts, scanning for key words, close/careful reading for understanding new or complex ideas).

WA.1. Writing: The student understands and uses a writing process.

1.1. Prewrites to generate ideas and plan writing. (W)

1.1.1. Applies more than one strategy for generating ideas and planning writing.
1.1.1.b. Gathers information from a range of sources, formulates questions, and uses an organizer (e.g., electronic graphic organizer, chart) to analyze and/or synthesize to plan writing.

1.3. Revises to improve text. (W)

1.3.1. Revises text, including changing words, sentences, paragraphs, and ideas.
1.3.1.a. Rereads work several times and has a different focus for each reading (e.g., first reading -- adding details for elaboration; second reading -- deleting sentences or phrases to achieve paragraph unity; third reading -- reorganizing ideas for meaning).

1.5. Publishes text to share with an audience. (W)

1.5.1. Publishes in more than one format for specific audiences and purposes.
1.5.1.b. Publishes multipage pieces and attends to format, graphics, illustrations, and other text features (e.g., captioned photos, maps).

1.6. Adjusts writing process as necessary.

1.6.1. Applies understanding of the recursive nature of writing process.
1.6.1.a. Revises at any stage of process.
1.6.1.b. Edits as needed at any stage.

WA.2. Communication: The student uses communication skills and strategies to interact/work effectively with others.

2.3. Uses skills and strategies to communicate interculturally.

2.3.1. Understands what influences perspective and the way people communicate.
2.3.1.c. Identifies one's own perspective on a given topic or idea (e.g., Social Studies: ''I think the American Revolution was important because it gave us our freedom.''; ''I think the American Revolution harmed the native people because we lost more of our land and culture.'').

WA.2. Reading: The student understands the meaning of what is read.

2.1. Demonstrate evidence of reading comprehension.

2.1.3. Apply comprehension monitoring strategies before, during, and after reading: determine importance using theme, main idea and supporting details in grade-level informational/expository text and/or literary/narrative text. W
2.1.3.a. State the main idea of a passage and provide several text-based details supporting it.
2.1.3.b. State the theme/message and supporting details in culturally relevant literary/narrative text.
2.1.4. Apply comprehension monitoring strategies before, during, and after reading: use prior knowledge.
2.1.4.a. Connect current issues, previous information and experiences to characters, events, and information within and across culturally relevant text(s).
2.1.5. Apply comprehension monitoring strategies before, during, and after reading: predict and infer from grade-level text. W
2.1.5.a. Make, confirm, and revise prediction based on prior knowledge and evidence from the text.
2.1.5.b. Cite passages from text to confirm or defend predictions and inferences.
2.1.5.c. Select, from multiple choices, a prediction, or inference from literary/narrative text (e.g., how a poet or author feels, how a character feels, what a character will do, what is likely to happen next or at the end of the story or poem).
2.1.5.e. Select, from multiple choices, a prediction or inference that could be made from the text.
2.1.6. Apply comprehension monitoring strategies to understand fiction, nonfiction, informational text, and task-oriented text: monitor for meaning, create mental images, and generate and answer questions.
2.1.6.f. Use pre-, during, and after-reading tools designed to activate and record prior knowledge to understand text (e.g., prediction guides, KWL charts, DRTA).
2.1.7. Apply comprehension monitoring strategies during and after reading: summarize grade-level informational/expository text and literary/narrative text. W
2.1.7.a. Create a summary including the main idea and the most important text-based facts, details, and/or ideas from informational/expository text (e.g., newspaper or magazine articles).
2.1.7.b. Summarize the plot/message in culturally relevant literary/narrative texts.
2.1.7.c. Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that best summarizes the story or selection.

2.2. Understand and apply knowledge of text components to comprehend text.

2.2.1. Apply understanding of time, order, and/or sequence to comprehend text. W
2.2.1.a. Explain the use of flashbacks to convey meaning in literary/narrative text.
2.2.1.b. Explain the use of steps in a process to convey meaning in an information text (e.g., how a bill becomes law, stages in the colonization of early America).
2.2.2. Apply understanding of printed and electronic text features to locate information and comprehend text. W
2.2.2.a. Locate information using grade-level appropriate text features.
2.2.2.b. Interpret and draw conclusions from grade-level appropriate text features such as maps, charts, tables, and graphs, etc. (e.g., given a table of precipitation and temperatures across the country, draw a conclusion about which cities would receive snow).
2.2.2.d. Select, from multiple choices, the purpose of a specific text feature and/or information learned from a text feature.
2.2.3. Understand and analyze story elements. W
2.2.3.a. Use knowledge of the situation, characters' actions, motivations, feelings, and physical attributes to determine characters' traits.
2.2.3.b. Identify the major actions that define the plot and how actions lead to conflict or resolution.
2.2.3.c. Explain the influence of setting on character and plot.
2.2.3.f. Identify the stated theme/message in text and support with evidence from the text.
2.2.3.h. Select, from multiple choices, words or selections that best describe specific story elements from the story, selection, or poem (e.g., character, setting, conflict).
2.2.4. Apply understanding of text organizational structures.
2.2.4.a. Recognize and use previously learned text organizational structures (simple listing, sequential order, description, compare and contrast, chronological order) to aid comprehension.
2.2.4.b. Identify and use text written in the text organizational structures of cause and effect and order of importance to find and organize information and comprehend text.
2.2.4.c. Differentiate between text organizational structures of informational/expository text and literary/narrative text.

2.3. Expand comprehension by analyzing, interpreting, and synthesizing information and ideas in literary and informational text.

2.3.1. Analyze informational/expository text and literary/narrative text for similarities and differences and cause and effect relationships. W
2.3.1.a. Find similarities and differences within and between texts using text-based evidence (e.g., facts and opinion in newspaper vs. poetry; authors' points of view in different works).
2.3.1.b. Identify and interpret cause and effect relationships within a text using evidence from the text (e.g., how the transcontinental railroad influenced the development of the West).
2.3.1.d. Select, from multiple choices, a sentence that explains or describes cause and effect relationships (e.g., what caused something to happen, what was the result of an action).
2.3.2. Analyze sources for information appropriate to a specific topic or for a specific purpose.
2.3.2.a. Select appropriate resources such as an atlas, newspaper, magazine, memos, directories, and/or schedules, to locate information on a specific topic or for a specific purpose.
2.3.2.b. Sort information gathered from various sources by topic and judge the utility of the information for a specific purpose.
2.3.3. Understand a function (which makes the story more interesting) of literary devices. W
2.3.3.b. Identify literary/narrative devices such as imagery, exaggeration, and dialogue and explain how they make the story more interesting.

2.4. Think critically and analyze author's use of language, style, purpose, and perspective in informational and literary text.

2.4.1. Apply the skills of drawing conclusions, providing a response, and expressing insights about informational/expository text and literary/narrative text. W
2.4.1.a. Select, from multiple choices, a statement that best represents the most important conclusion that may be drawn from the selection.
2.4.2. Analyze an author's style of writing, including language choice, achieves the author's purpose and influences an audience. W
2.4.2.a. Identify and explain the author's purpose (e.g., entertain, inform, explain, persuade).
2.4.2.b. Identify and explain how author's use of word choice, sentence structure and length, and/or literary devices influences an audience.
2.4.3. Analyze text for fact and opinion. W
2.4.3.a. Distinguish between fact and opinion and provide supporting evidence from the text.
2.4.3.b. Select, from multiple choices, a statement that is a fact or an opinion.
2.4.4. Analyze the author's effectiveness for different audiences. W
2.4.4.a. Identify the author's target audience(s) and cite examples of details and/or arguments that appeal to that audience.

WA.2. Writing: The student writes in a variety of forms for different audiences and purposes.

2.2. Writes for different purposes. (W)

2.2.1. Demonstrates understanding of different purposes for writing.
2.2.1.b. Writes to learn (e.g., math learning logs, reflections, double-entry logs, steps/strategies used to solve math problems), to tell a story, to explain, and to persuade.
2.2.1.c. Writes for more than one purpose using the same form (e.g., a letter used to explain, to request, or to persuade).
2.2.1.d. Includes more than one mode within a piece to address purpose (e.g., descriptive details or narrative anecdote within an explanation).

2.3. Writes in a variety of forms/genres. (W)

2.3.1. Uses a variety of forms/genres.
2.3.1.a. Includes more than one form/genre in a single piece (e.g., a report about salmon that includes a poem, fact box, and story).
2.3.1.c. Produces a variety of new forms/genres. Examples: interviews; autobiographies; business letters; expository essays; persuasive advertisements; field observation notes; book reviews; rhyming couplets; raps

WA.3. Communication: The student uses communication skills and strategies to effectively present ideas and one's self in a variety of situations.

3.1. Uses knowledge of topic/theme, audience, and purpose to plan presentations.

3.1.1. Understands how to plan and organize effective oral communication and presentation.
3.1.1.c. Gives credit to the source for selected information.

3.3. Uses effective delivery.

3.3.1. Applies skills for delivery of effective oral communication and presentations.
3.3.1.e. Uses comparisons, storytelling, and analogies to explain ideas.

WA.3. Reading: The student reads different materials for a variety of purposes.

3.4. Read for literary experience in a variety of genres.

3.4.2. Understand and analyze a variety of literary/narrative genres.
3.4.2.a. Examine and explain the characteristics of genres.
3.4.3. Analyze literature from a variety of cultures or historical periods for relationships and recurring themes.
3.4.3.a. Identify similarities and differences within and among multiple cultures or historical periods citing text-based evidence (e.g., laws in different cultures or historical periods).

WA.3. Writing: The student writes clearly and effectively.

3.1. Develops ideas and organizes writing. (W)

3.1.1. Analyzes ideas, selects a narrow topic, and elaborates using specific details and/or examples.
3.1.1.b. Selects details relevant to the topic to extend ideas and develop elaboration (e.g., specific words and phrases, reasons, anecdotes, facts, descriptions, examples).
3.1.1.c. Uses personal experiences, observations, and research to support opinions and ideas (e.g., data relevant to the topic to support conclusions in math, science, or social studies; appropriate anecdotes to explain or persuade).
3.1.2. Uses an effective organizational structure.
3.1.2.a. Writes in a logically organized progression of unified paragraphs.
3.1.2.b. Develops an interesting introduction in expository writing (e.g., leads with the five W's, an interesting fact).
3.1.2.c. Develops an effective ending that goes beyond a repetition of the introduction (e.g., summary, prediction).
3.1.2.d. Varies leads and endings in narratives.
3.1.2.e. Sequences ideas and uses transitional words and phrases to link events, reasons, facts, and opinions within and between paragraphs (e.g., order of importance -- least, most).
3.1.2.f. Organizes clearly: comparisons (e.g., point-by-point); explanations (e.g., save most important point for last); persuasion (e.g., if-then); narratives (e.g., problem-solution-outcome)

3.2. Uses appropriate style. (W)

3.2.1. Applies understanding that different audiences and purposes affect writer's voice.
3.2.1.b. Writes in appropriate and consistent voice in narrative, informational, and persuasive writing (e.g., a ''how to'' paper vs. a persuasive piece).
3.2.2. Uses language appropriate for a specific audience and purpose.
3.2.2.a. Uses precise language (e.g., powerful verbs, specific descriptors).
3.2.2.b. Uses formal, informal, and specialized language (e.g., photosynthesis, ratio, expedition) appropriate for audience and purpose.
3.2.2.c. Uses literary and sound devices (e.g., similes, personification, rhythm).
3.2.3. Uses a variety of sentences.
3.2.3.d. Writes with a rhythm pattern.

3.3. Knows and applies writing conventions appropriate for the grade level. (W)

3.3.2. Spells words appropriate for the grade level accurately.
3.3.2.a. Uses spelling rules and patterns from previous grades.
3.3.2.b. Spells high-frequency words correctly.
3.3.2.c. Uses multiple strategies to spell. Examples: Visual patterns (e.g., -ion endings); Sound patterns (e.g., easily confused endings -able / -ible, -ant /-ent); Affixes (e.g., pre-, in-, un-, -ed, -ing, -graph); Rules (e.g., ''i'' before ''e'' rule)
3.3.2.e. Develops a personal spelling list.
3.3.3. Applies capitalization rules.
3.3.3.a. Uses capitalization rules from previous grades.
3.3.3.b. Capitalizes brand names (e.g., Nike).
3.3.3.c. Capitalizes geographic regions (e.g., the West).
3.3.4. Applies punctuation rules.
3.3.4.b. Uses periods in abbreviations (e.g., pg., ft.).
3.3.4.d. Uses comma after date or address within text (e.g., June 1, 1993, was an important day in my life.).
3.3.5. Applies usage rules.
3.3.5.a. Applies usage rules from previous grades.
3.3.5.b. Uses subject vs. object pronouns correctly (e.g., I vs. me).
3.3.5.c. Uses resources to check usage.
3.3.6. Uses complete sentences in writing.
3.3.6.a. May use fragments in dialogue as appropriate.
3.3.7. Applies paragraph conventions.
3.3.7.a. Uses paragraph conventions (e.g., designated by indentation or block format, skipping lines between paragraphs).
3.3.7.b. Uses new paragraphs to change speakers in dialogue.

WA.4. Writing: The student analyzes and evaluates the effectiveness of written work.

4.1. Analyzes and evaluate others' and own writing. (W)

4.1.1. Analyzes and evaluates writing using established criteria.
4.1.1.a. Identifies professional authors' styles and techniques (e.g., leads, conclusions, word choice, purpose, character, and plot development).

4.2. Sets goals for improvement. (W)

4.2.1. Evaluates and adjusts writing goals using criteria.
4.2.1.a. Writes reflection about growth in writing and creates an improvement plan (e.g., ''My introductions are getting better, but I need to learn about different kinds of conclusions.'').

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