Georgia Standards of Excellence for Second Grade Science

All about sound and light
How is Sound Made? Sound is made because of something vibrating. You hear sounds when vibrating air causes your eardrum to vibrate. How Are Sounds Different? How Does Sound Travel? How Do People and Animals Make Sounds? What is Light? Light is also a form of energy. Light is energy that travels at very high speeds. Where Does Light Come From? Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Animals
FreeThere are many different kinds of animals. The five main groups of animals are: Fish, birds, mammals, reptiles and amphibians. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Did you know... 2nd Grade
Gas is all around us. There is a layer of gas that surrounds Earth, which is called the atmosphere. Scientists who study the weather are called meteorologists. Some plants like ferns do not have flowers. They make new plants using spores instead of seeds. The cheetah is the fastest animal in the world. Cheetahs can run up to about 113 kilometers per hour. The arctic is the coldest habitat. Brrrr! Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Earth yesterday and today
Life on Earth Has Changed. Many kinds of animals that used to live on Earth are no longer living. They are extinct. Reasons for Extinction: Big changes in the climate. Many times animals could not handle these big changes in the weather. Good news: Many animals have adapted to many changes that happen on Earth so that they CAN survive and NOT become extinct! Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Earth's weather and seasons
What is Weather? Weather is what it feels like outside right now: hot, cold, windy, wet... There are Four Seasons: Winter, Spring, Summer, Fall. Seasons always come in the same order every year. Each season brings different weather. Winter is the coldest season and summer is the warmest. Some Kinds of Bad Weather: A thunderstorm, A blizzard, A hurricane. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Fossils and dinosaurs
Many animals have lived on Earth and many still live on the Earth. Some lived on Earth millions of year ago. Many of these animals unfortunately do not live on Earth anymore. Fossils are things that provide evidence (or proof) of things that lived long ago. A fossil is the outline or piece of something that died millions of years ago. Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
How do plants and animals live together?
Plants need air, water, sunlight, and room to grow in order to live. Animals need air, water, food, and shelter in order to live. What is a Shelter? It’s a safe place for an animal! Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1
Magnets
What Is a Magnet? A magnet attracts certain kinds of metal. Attract means to pull towards. If something is magnetic, that means it is attracted by a magnet. Magnets come in different shapes and sizes. Magnets are used most every day. Example: You may have magnets on your refrigerator to hang up pictures and notes. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1
Rocks, Soil and water
What are Rocks? Rocks are solid objects found in nature. Rocks are made up of minerals. What is Soil? Soil is the loose material the covers much of the Earth. Soil is also nonliving. Soil can be made of clay, sand, and humus. All living things need WATER to survive and to grow. The movement and recycling of the Earth’s water is called the water cycle. Read more...iWorksheets: 3Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 2
Water Habitats
We already know that a habitat is the place where plants and animals live. Now, let’s look at WATER habitats... Water covers nearly 75% of the Earth: which means there is a lot more water than land on Earth! Read more...iWorksheets: 4Study Guides: 1Vocabulary Sets: 1

GA.S2E. Earth and Space Science

S2E1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about stars having different sizes and brightness.

S2E1.a. Ask questions to describe the physical attributes (size and brightness) of stars.
The Sky
The Sun is a large, hot ball of gas. It is a star. The Sun gives Earth light and heat. Living things need the Sun to live! The sun’s rays shine on the moon at night. This makes the moon bright! The Earth is the third planet from Sun. As the Earth moves around the Sun it turns. This rotation causes night and day here on Earth. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
The sun and earth
The Sun is a large hot ball of gas. It is also a star. The Sun gives Earth light and heat. Living things need the Sun to live! Sun rays shine on the moon at night which makes the moon bright! The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. There are four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Moon, star and planets
The moon moves around the Earth. A star is a hot ball of gas, stars give off light. The Sun is a star. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
S2E1.b. Construct an argument to support the claim that although the sun appears to be the brightest and largest star, it is actually medium in size and brightness.
The Sky
The Sun is a large, hot ball of gas. It is a star. The Sun gives Earth light and heat. Living things need the Sun to live! The sun’s rays shine on the moon at night. This makes the moon bright! The Earth is the third planet from Sun. As the Earth moves around the Sun it turns. This rotation causes night and day here on Earth. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
The sun and earth
The Sun is a large hot ball of gas. It is also a star. The Sun gives Earth light and heat. Living things need the Sun to live! Sun rays shine on the moon at night which makes the moon bright! The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. There are four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1

S2E2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to develop an understanding of the patterns of the sun and the moon and the sun’s effect on Earth.

S2E2.c. Represent data in tables and/or graphs of the length of the day and night to recognize the change in seasons.
Earth in space
FreeThe Sun, which is a star, is Earth's source of heat and light. The earth travels in circles around the Sun. The Earth’s rotation every 24 hours results in day and night on Earth. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
The seasons
A season is a different time of year. There are four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall. The four seasons always come in the same order. Winter comes first in the year. Spring comes next. Summer is third. Fall is the fourth season. Seasons bring different types of weather. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
The sun and earth
The Sun is a large hot ball of gas. It is also a star. The Sun gives Earth light and heat. Living things need the Sun to live! Sun rays shine on the moon at night which makes the moon bright! The Earth is the third planet from the Sun. There are four seasons: winter, spring, summer, and fall. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
S2E2.d. Use data from personal observations to describe, illustrate, and predict how the appearance of the moon changes over time in a pattern.
Earth in space
FreeThe Sun, which is a star, is Earth's source of heat and light. The earth travels in circles around the Sun. The Earth’s rotation every 24 hours results in day and night on Earth. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Moon, star and planets
The moon moves around the Earth. A star is a hot ball of gas, stars give off light. The Sun is a star. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

S2E3. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about how weather, plants, animals, and humans cause changes to the environment.

S2E3.b. Construct an explanation of the causes and effects of a change to the environment in your community.
Taking Care of Earth
How Can People Protect the Earth? We can use our resources wisely. That means we must use all resources carefully and not waste them. Do not waste water. Do not litter – throw trash away in a trash can. Do not put bad things in water. Bad things can pollute water. Remember the three R’s: Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Using and saving natural resources
Natural resources are found on the Earth and are important to living things. People, plants, and animals need air to live. Air is a natural resource that never runs out! Water is another natural resource that people and animals use – they drink water in order to survive. Plants also need water to grow. Some natural resources are renewable. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1

GA.S2P. Physical Science

S2P1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the properties of matter and changes that occur in objects.

S2P1.a. Ask questions to describe and classify different objects according to their physical properties.
Matter and its properties
Everything around us is made out matter. Matter is anything that takes up space and has mass. All matter is made up of many different kinds of particles that are combined together in different ways. A property of matter is a feature, trait, or characteristic. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Describe and measure matter
What is matter? Matter is all around you. Matter is anything that takes up space. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Hands-on Lab Skills/Science Inquiry
Scientists use MANY different tools while they are observing and conducting experiments. Here are some tools scientists use: RULER, MEASURING CUP, CLOCK, HAND, LENS, THERMOMETER, BALANCE. Scientists often put objects into piles or groups based on their color, shape, texture, size and weight. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Hands-on lab skills/Science Inquiry
Predictions Based on Patterns. Scientists often make predictions based on all the things they already know are true. Predict means to tell what you think is going to happen. Scientists then test their predictions to see if they are right! Scientists often compare and sort objects based on color, shape, texture, size and weight. Scientists use a METER STICK to measure the length of an object. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Math in Science
Charts and Graphs. Studying Plants. Studying Animals. Studying Water Habitats, Studying How Living Things Grow and Change. Studying Energy Needs. Studying Earth's Weather. Studying the Sun and the Earth. Studying the Moon, Stars, and Planets. Studying Earth, Yesterday and Today. Using and Saving Natural Resources. Hands-on Lab Skills. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
S2P1.b. Construct an explanation for how structures made from small pieces (linking cubes, building blocks) can be disassembled and then rearranged to make new and different structures.
Changes in matter
A physical change is when something changes its appearance without changing its makeup. An example of a physical change is chopping wood. An example of a chemical change is burning the wood. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
What is science?
Science is the study of the world around us. Scientists study the world around us. When studying things like plants, animals, and rocks, scientists use their senses: Eyes - to see. Nose - to smell. Ears - to hear. Hands - to touch. Mouth - to taste. Scientists study many things – like the things YOU study in 2nd grade: plants, rocks, weather, fossils, solar system, animals. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
S2P1.c. Provide evidence from observations to construct an explanation that some changes in matter caused by heating or cooling can be reversed and some changes are irreversible.
Changes in matter
A physical change is when something changes its appearance without changing its makeup. An example of a physical change is chopping wood. An example of a chemical change is burning the wood. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
What is science?
Science is the study of the world around us. Scientists study the world around us. When studying things like plants, animals, and rocks, scientists use their senses: Eyes - to see. Nose - to smell. Ears - to hear. Hands - to touch. Mouth - to taste. Scientists study many things – like the things YOU study in 2nd grade: plants, rocks, weather, fossils, solar system, animals. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Comparing matter
What is matter? Matter is all around you. Matter is anything that takes up space. Mass is the amount of matter in an object. It is how much stuff an object is made of. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1

S2P2. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information to explain the effect of a force (a push or a pull) in the movement of an object (changes in speed and direction).

S2P2.a. Plan and carry out an investigation to demonstrate how pushing and pulling on an object affects the motion of the object.
Forces and motion-how things move
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Force and motion
What Makes Things Move? Forces make things move! A force is a push or pull that can make something move. Gravity is a force! Gravity is a force that pulls things down. Speed is how fast or how slow an object moves. Objects can move straight, up, down, to the left, or to the right. Objects can curve and swerve when they move too! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Did you Know... 1st Grade
Air is a nonliving thing. The air we breathe in is called oxygen. Herbivores are animals that only eat plants. Can you believe a HUGE dinosaur called a brachiosaurus was an herbivore? A whale is NOT a fish. It is a mammal that lives in the ocean. You have almost 10,000 taste buds in your mouth! These taste buds help you TASTE food. You can taste things that are sweet, sour, salty, and bitter! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Energy needs
What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Energy is what allows living things and objects to do things. Different Kinds of Energy are: Heat Energy, Energy of Motion, Light Energy, Sound Energy, Electricity or Electrical Energy. Some Sources of Energy are: The Sun, A candle, A stove, Food. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Objects in motion
What is force? A force is a push or pull that can make something move. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
S2P2.b. Design a device to change the speed or direction of an object.
Forces and motion-how things move
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Force and motion
What Makes Things Move? Forces make things move! A force is a push or pull that can make something move. Gravity is a force! Gravity is a force that pulls things down. Speed is how fast or how slow an object moves. Objects can move straight, up, down, to the left, or to the right. Objects can curve and swerve when they move too! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Energy needs
What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Energy is what allows living things and objects to do things. Different Kinds of Energy are: Heat Energy, Energy of Motion, Light Energy, Sound Energy, Electricity or Electrical Energy. Some Sources of Energy are: The Sun, A candle, A stove, Food. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Objects in motion
What is force? A force is a push or pull that can make something move. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
S2P2.c. Record and analyze data to decide if a design solution works as intended to change the speed or direction of an object with a force (a push or a pull).
Forces and motion-how things move
Motion is the process of an object changing place or position. Position refers to an object's location. The position of an object all depends on how a person is looking at the object and what it us being compared to, which is known as an object's relative position. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Force and motion
What Makes Things Move? Forces make things move! A force is a push or pull that can make something move. Gravity is a force! Gravity is a force that pulls things down. Speed is how fast or how slow an object moves. Objects can move straight, up, down, to the left, or to the right. Objects can curve and swerve when they move too! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Energy needs
What is Energy? Energy is the ability to do work. Energy is what allows living things and objects to do things. Different Kinds of Energy are: Heat Energy, Energy of Motion, Light Energy, Sound Energy, Electricity or Electrical Energy. Some Sources of Energy are: The Sun, A candle, A stove, Food. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1
Objects in motion
What is force? A force is a push or pull that can make something move. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2

GA.S2L. Life Science

S2L1. Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information about the life cycles of different living organisms.

S2L1.a. Ask questions to determine the sequence of the life cycle of common animals in your area: a mammal such as a cat, dog or classroom pet, a bird such as a chicken, an amphibian such as a frog, and an insect such as a butterfly.
How animals grow and change and live
Animals have certain traits which help them survive in their environment. These survival traits are called adaptations. Many adaptations are inherited, which means they are passed on from the parents of animal. Many animals have adaptations for eating such as the way a bird’s beak is shaped. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Land Habitats
What is a habitat? A habitat is the place where plants and animals live. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
How living things grow and change?
What are living things? Living things are alive! Plants, animals, and people are living things. Living things can grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Mammals and birds
What are Birds? Birds are warm-blooded animals that have: wings, feathers, a beak, no teeth, bones. Birds lay eggs. Their young hatch from those eggs. What Are Mammals? Mammals are animals that have hair. Mammals are the only animals with hair. Mammals are also warm-blooded. This means their body temperature stays the same, even if it is very cold or hot outside. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Reptiles, amphibians and fish
Reptiles have scales. Reptiles are born on land. Reptiles are cold-blooded which means their bodies change temperatures with the outside temperature around them. Reptiles lay eggs, and their babies hatch from those eggs. All amphibians begin their life in water with gills. As they grow, they develop lungs – which is what they use to breathe with on land. They grow legs to use on land too. Fish use gills to breathe. A fish stays in the water for its entire life! Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Science in our world
What is Technology? Technology is using science in order to solve different problems. Technology uses things we know about science to make tools for people to make doing work easier. Technology can be as simple as a hammer. Technology keeps us safe (in our houses, our cars). Technology supplies us with the things we need to live. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
S2L1.b. Plan and carry out an investigation of the life cycle of a plant by growing a plant from a seed and by recording changes over a period of time.
How do plants grow?
Plants need many essential things in order to grow, such as: water, air, nutrients, sunlight, and warm temperature. Plants need their space too! If a plant grows too close to other plants, it may not grow healthy and strong, because the plants may compete over the available water, nutrients, and space in the soil for their roots to grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Plants
What are the Parts of a Plant? Let’s go from the bottom to the top: ROOTS, STEM, LEAVES, FLOWERS. Who Needs Plants? EVERYONE! Plants give off a gas called oxygen which is what we (and animals) need to breathe in to live. A plant's life cycle is how long a plant lives or how long it takes to grow, flower, and make seeds. All plants need water, air, and warm temperatures to grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Land Habitats
What is a habitat? A habitat is the place where plants and animals live. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
How living things grow and change?
What are living things? Living things are alive! Plants, animals, and people are living things. Living things can grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Mammals and birds
What are Birds? Birds are warm-blooded animals that have: wings, feathers, a beak, no teeth, bones. Birds lay eggs. Their young hatch from those eggs. What Are Mammals? Mammals are animals that have hair. Mammals are the only animals with hair. Mammals are also warm-blooded. This means their body temperature stays the same, even if it is very cold or hot outside. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Reptiles, amphibians and fish
Reptiles have scales. Reptiles are born on land. Reptiles are cold-blooded which means their bodies change temperatures with the outside temperature around them. Reptiles lay eggs, and their babies hatch from those eggs. All amphibians begin their life in water with gills. As they grow, they develop lungs – which is what they use to breathe with on land. They grow legs to use on land too. Fish use gills to breathe. A fish stays in the water for its entire life! Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Science in our world
What is Technology? Technology is using science in order to solve different problems. Technology uses things we know about science to make tools for people to make doing work easier. Technology can be as simple as a hammer. Technology keeps us safe (in our houses, our cars). Technology supplies us with the things we need to live. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
S2L1.d. Develop models to illustrate the unique and diverse life cycles of organisms other than humans.
How do plants grow?
Plants need many essential things in order to grow, such as: water, air, nutrients, sunlight, and warm temperature. Plants need their space too! If a plant grows too close to other plants, it may not grow healthy and strong, because the plants may compete over the available water, nutrients, and space in the soil for their roots to grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
How animals grow and change and live
Animals have certain traits which help them survive in their environment. These survival traits are called adaptations. Many adaptations are inherited, which means they are passed on from the parents of animal. Many animals have adaptations for eating such as the way a bird’s beak is shaped. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Did you Know... 1st Grade
Air is a nonliving thing. The air we breathe in is called oxygen. Herbivores are animals that only eat plants. Can you believe a HUGE dinosaur called a brachiosaurus was an herbivore? A whale is NOT a fish. It is a mammal that lives in the ocean. You have almost 10,000 taste buds in your mouth! These taste buds help you TASTE food. You can taste things that are sweet, sour, salty, and bitter! Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Plants
What are the Parts of a Plant? Let’s go from the bottom to the top: ROOTS, STEM, LEAVES, FLOWERS. Who Needs Plants? EVERYONE! Plants give off a gas called oxygen which is what we (and animals) need to breathe in to live. A plant's life cycle is how long a plant lives or how long it takes to grow, flower, and make seeds. All plants need water, air, and warm temperatures to grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :2
Land Habitats
What is a habitat? A habitat is the place where plants and animals live. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
How living things grow and change?
What are living things? Living things are alive! Plants, animals, and people are living things. Living things can grow. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Mammals and birds
What are Birds? Birds are warm-blooded animals that have: wings, feathers, a beak, no teeth, bones. Birds lay eggs. Their young hatch from those eggs. What Are Mammals? Mammals are animals that have hair. Mammals are the only animals with hair. Mammals are also warm-blooded. This means their body temperature stays the same, even if it is very cold or hot outside. Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Reptiles, amphibians and fish
Reptiles have scales. Reptiles are born on land. Reptiles are cold-blooded which means their bodies change temperatures with the outside temperature around them. Reptiles lay eggs, and their babies hatch from those eggs. All amphibians begin their life in water with gills. As they grow, they develop lungs – which is what they use to breathe with on land. They grow legs to use on land too. Fish use gills to breathe. A fish stays in the water for its entire life! Read more...iWorksheets :4Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Science in our world
What is Technology? Technology is using science in order to solve different problems. Technology uses things we know about science to make tools for people to make doing work easier. Technology can be as simple as a hammer. Technology keeps us safe (in our houses, our cars). Technology supplies us with the things we need to live. Read more...iWorksheets :3Study Guides :1Vocabulary :1
Standards

NewPath Learning resources are fully aligned to US Education Standards. Select a standard below to view correlations to your selected resource:

Alabama Courses of StudyAlaska Content and Performance StandardsArizona's College and Career Ready StandardsArkansas Curriculum FrameworksCalifornia Content StandardsColorado Academic Standards (CAS)Connecticut Core StandardsDelaware Standards and InstructionFlorida StandardsGeorgia Standards of ExcellenceHawaii Content and Performance StandardsIdaho Content StandardsIllinois Learning StandardsIndiana Academic StandardsIowa CoreKansas Academic StandardsKentucky Academic StandardsLouisiana Academic StandardsMaine Learning ResultsMaryland College and Career-Ready StandardsMaryland StandardsMassachusetts Curriculum FrameworksMichigan Academic StandardsMinnesota Academic StandardsMississippi College & Career Readiness StandardsMissouri Learning StandardsMontana Content StandardsNational STEM StandardsNebraska Core Academic Content StandardsNevada Academic Content StandardsNew Hampshire College and Career Ready StandardsNew Jersey Student Learning StandardsNew Mexico Content StandardsNew York State Learning Standards and Core CurriculumNext Generation Science Standards (NGSS Comprehensive)North Carolina Standard Course of StudyNorth Dakota Academic Content StandardsOhio Learning StandardsOklahoma Academic StandardsOregon Academic Content StandardsPennsylvania Core and Academic StandardsRhode Island World-Class StandardsSouth Carolina Standards & LearningSouth Dakota Content StandardsTennessee Academic StandardsTexas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS)U.S. National StandardsUtah Core StandardsVermont Framework of Standards and LearningVirginia Standards of LearningWashington DC Academic StandardsWashington State K–12 Learning Standards and GuidelinesWest Virginia College and Career Readiness StandardsWisconsin Academic StandardsWyoming Content and Performance Standards