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Delaware Standards for Fourth Grade Science

DE.1. Nature and Application of Science and Technology

1.1. Understandings and Abilities of Scientific Inquiry

Enduring Understanding: Scientific inquiry involves asking scientifically-oriented questions, collecting evidence, forming explanations, connecting explanations to scientific knowledge and theory, and communicating and justifying the explanation.
1.1.A. Understand that: Scientific investigations involve asking a focused scientific question. Investigations differ depending upon the question being asked.
1.1.A.1. Be able to: Generate focused questions and informed predictions about the natural world. (Level: Essential)
1.1.C. Understand that: The purpose of accurate data collection is to provide evidence to compare with the prediction.
1.1.C.1. Be able to: Accurately collect data using observations, simple tools and equipment. Display and organize data in tables, charts, diagrams, and bar graphs or plots over time. Compare and question results with and from others. (Level: Essential)
1.1.D. Understand that: The body of scientific knowledge grows as scientists ask questions, conduct investigations, develop explanations and compare results with what is already known.
1.1.D.1. Be able to: Construct a reasonable explanation by analyzing evidence from the data. Revise the explanation after comparing results with other sources or after further investigation. (Level: Essential)
1.1.F. Understand that: The use of mathematics, reading, writing, and technology are important in conducting scientific inquiries.
1.1.F.1. Be able to: Use mathematics, reading, writing, and technology when conducting scientific inquiries. (Level: Important)

DE.2. Materials and Their Properties

2.1. Properties and Structure of Materials

Enduring Understanding: The structures of materials determine their properties.
2.1.A. Observable physical properties can be used to classify materials. These physical properties may include solubility, mass, magnetism, and electrical conductivity. Tools such as graduated cylinders, balances, rulers, magnifiers, simple circuits, and magnets are used to study the physical properties. (Level: Essential)
2.1.B. Heating and cooling of materials may produce changes in the state of solids, liquids and gases. (Level: Important)

2.2. Mixtures and Solutions

Enduring Understanding: The properties of a mixture are based on the properties of its components.
2.2.A. Most materials are physical mixtures. Physical mixtures can be composed of different kinds of materials, each having distinct physical properties. These physical property differences can be used to separate, sort, and group the materials of the mixture. (Level: Essential)
2.2.B. Mixtures can consist of different combinations of solids and/or liquids. The characteristics of these resulting mixtures depend on the relative amounts and properties of the components. (Level: Essential)
2.2.D. When a solid is dissolved in a liquid, a solution is formed that can be separated through the process of evaporation. (Level: Essential)

2.5. Material Technology

Enduring Understanding: People develop new materials as a response to the needs of society and the pursuit of knowledge. This development may have risks and benefits to humans and the environment.
2.5.A. Many materials can be recycled and used again (sometimes in different forms). (Level: Compact)

DE.3. Energy and Its Effects

3.1. The Forms and Sources of Energy

Enduring Understanding: Energy takes many forms. These forms can be grouped into types of energy that are associated with the motion of mass (kinetic energy), and types of energy associated with the position of mass and with energy fields (potential energy).
3.1.A. Energy from the sun includes visible light, which consists of a combination of different colored light, and components that are not visible, which include infrared and ultraviolet light waves. (Level: Compact)
3.1.B. The energy of a moving object depends on its speed. Faster moving objects have more energy than slower moving objects. (Level: Essential)
3.1.D. Sound is a form of energy that is produced by vibrating objects, and can be described by its pitch and its loudness (volume). Sound travels faster through some substances than others. (Level: Compact)
3.1.E. Heat energy raises the object's temperature or changes the state of the object (i.e., solid to liquid, liquid to gas). (Level: Important)
3.1.F. The energy obtained from electrical outlets is electrical energy that was produced at an electrical power plant. Electrical energy can be generated and then transmitted over great distances. Batteries are portable sources of electrical energy. (Level: Compact)

3.2. Forces and the Transfer of Energy

Enduring Understanding: Changes take place because of the transfer of energy. Energy is transferred to matter through the action of forces. Different forces are responsible for the transfer of the different forms of energy.
3.2.A. Force is any push or pull exerted by one object on another. Some forces (e.g., magnetic forces and gravity) can make things move without touching them. (Level: Essential)
3.2.B. The speeds of two or more objects can be compared (i.e., faster, slower) by measuring the distance traveled in a given unit of time, or by measuring the time needed to travel a fixed distance. (Level: Essential)
3.2.C. A force must be applied to change the speed of a moving object or change its direction of motion. Larger forces will create greater changes in an object's speed in a given unit of time. (Level: Essential)
3.2.E. The transfer of heat energy may produce changes in the state of a substance. (Level: Important)
3.2.F. The energy of electricity is transferred to electrical devices through simple closed circuits (simple series or simple parallel circuits). (Level: Essential)

3.3. Energy Interacting With Materials; the Transformation and Conservation of Energy

Enduring Understanding: Energy readily transforms from one form to another, but these transformations are not always reversible. The details of these transformations depend upon the initial form of the energy and the properties of the materials involved. Energy may transfer into or out of a system and it may change forms, but the total energy cannot change.
3.3.A. When light strikes an object, the light can reflect off of its surface or pass into the object. The light that passes into the object can pass through it or be absorbed by the material that makes up the object. Light usually refracts when passing from one material into another. (Level: Compact)

3.4. The Production, Consumption and Application of Energy

Enduring Understanding: People utilize a variety of resources to meet the basic and specific needs of life. Some of these resources cannot be replaced. Other resources can be replenished or exist in such vast quantities they are in no danger of becoming depleted. Often the energy stored in resources must be transformed into more useful forms and transported over great distances before it can be helpful to us.
3.4.A. The production of most of the energy that we use in our daily lives comes from energy stored in natural resources. The quantity of these resources is limited, so it is important to conserve our natural resources by using them wisely. (Level: Compact)

DE.4. Earth in Space

4.1. The Earth/Moon/Sun System

Enduring Understanding: There are observable, predictable patterns of movement in the Sun, Earth, and Moon system that account for day/night.
4.1.A. The apparent path of the Sun, as seen from Earth, is from east to west. Over the course of a day, half of the Earth is always illuminated by the Sun causing day, and the half not illuminated by the Sun experiences nighttime. (Level: Essential
4.1.B. The cycle from day to night is caused by the Earth's rotation. Earth undergoes one complete rotation about every 24 hours. (Level: Essential)
4.1.C. The Moon orbits the Earth. The appearance of the Moon changes as it moves through its orbit. These changes are called phases. (Level: Essential)
4.1.D. The Sun is much larger than the Moon. Although the Moon is closer to Earth than the Sun, the two appear to be the same size when viewed from Earth. This is because objects appear smaller as the distance from the viewer increases. (Level: Important)

4.2. The Solar System

Enduring Understanding: Earth is part of a system that includes other planets.
4.2.A. Earth is one of the planets in our Solar System that orbits the Sun. The Sun we see during the day is our nearest star. Stars we see at night lie outside our Solar System. (Level: Important)

DE.5. Earth's Dynamic Systems

5.1. Components of Earth

Enduring Understanding: Earth's systems can be broken down into individual components which have observable measurable properties.
5.1.A. Water exists in three states (solid, liquid and gas) that are dependent upon the surrounding temperature. (Level: Important)
5.1.C. The ability of water to pass through soil depends on the relative amounts of clay and sand in the soil. (Level: Important)

5.2. Interactions Throughout Earth's Systems

Enduring Understanding: Earth's components form systems. These systems continually interact at different rates of time, affecting the Earth locally and globally.
5.2.B. Water reshapes Earth's land surface by eroding rock and soil in some areas and depositing them in other areas. (Level: Essential)
5.2.D. Water in rivers and streams transports materials. As a general rule, when a stream enters a larger body of water, less massive materials in suspension will travel farther than more massive materials before settling. (Level: Essential)
5.2.E. The surface of Earth changes constantly. Some of these changes happen slowly and are difficult to detect on a daily basis. Other changes happen quickly and result from events (i.e., major storms and volcanoes). (Level: Essential)
5.2.F. Weather changes daily and seasonally. Weather in Delaware may change little from day to day, but can vary greatly when storm systems move into the area. (Level: Compact)
5.2.H. Local weather at any point in time varies at different locations around the world. (Level: Compact)

5.3. Technology and Applications

Enduring Understanding: Technology enables us to better understand Earth's systems. It also allows us to analyze the impact of human activities on Earth's systems and the impact of Earth's systems on human activity.
5.3.A. Some satellites allow scientists to observe, over time, large-scale changes in the geosphere as well as the development of short term weather events. (Level: Compact)

DE.6. Life Processes

6.1. Structure/Function Relationship

Enduring Understanding: Living systems, from the organismic to the cellular level, demonstrate the complementary nature of structure and function.
6.1.B. The digestive system has major structures that function to break down food for use in the body. The major parts of the digestive system include the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. (Level: Compact)
6.1.C. Organisms can be grouped based on similarities and differences in their structures and functions. These may include characteristics such as appendages, roots and leaves of plants, or the presence or lack of a backbone. (Level: Essential)

6.2. Matter and Energy Transformations

Enduring Understanding: All organisms transfer matter and convert energy from one form to another. Both matter and energy are necessary to build and maintain structures within the organism.
6.2.A. Plants need the Sun's energy to grow and survive. (Level: Essential)
6.2.B. Animals need food to provide materials and energy for life which they derive directly or indirectly from plants. (Level: Essential)

6.3. Regulation and Behavior

Enduring Understanding: Organisms respond to internal and external cues, which allow them to survive.
6.3.A. An organism displays behaviors in response to internal cues, such as hunger, and external cues, such as light, temperature, or interaction with living things. (Level: Essential)
6.3.B. There are similarities and differences in how organisms respond to internal and external cues. These behaviors may include strategies for acquiring food, building shelters, or evading predators. (Level: Important)

DE.7. Diversity and Continuity of Living Things

7.1. Reproduction, Heredity and Development

Enduring Understanding: Organisms reproduce, develop, have predictable life cycles, and pass on heritable traits to their offspring.
7.1.C. Most plants go through a life cycle of germination, growth, development, reproduction, and death. (Level: Essential)

DE.8. Ecology

8.1. Interactions within the Environment

Enduring Understanding: Organisms and their environments are interconnected. Changes in one part of the system will affect other parts of the system.
8.1.A. People depend on living and nonliving resources to satisfy their need for food, shelter, and fuel. (Level: Compact)
8.1.B. All living organisms interact with the living and nonliving parts of their surroundings to meet their needs for survival. These interactions lead to a constant exchange of matter. (Level: Essential)
8.1.D. Changes in an organism's environment may be either beneficial or harmful. Organisms may be affected by other organisms, by various physical factors (e.g., rainfall, temperature), by physical forces (e.g., storms, earthquakes), and by daily, seasonal, and annual cycles. (Level: Essential)

8.2. Energy Flow and Material Cycles in the Environment

Enduring Understandings: Matter needed to sustain life is continually recycled among and between organisms and the environment. Energy from the Sun flows irreversibly through ecosystems and is conserved as organisms use and transform it.
8.2.A. Plants need energy from the Sun, water and nutrients for growth and survival. (Level: Essential)
8.2.B. Animals eat plants or other animals that have eaten plants. Animals obtain energy and materials for body repair and growth from food. (Level: Essential)
8.2.C. Dead plants and animals are broken down by decomposers. (Level: Essential)

8.3. Human Impact

Enduring Understanding: Humans can alter the living and non-living factors within an ecosystem, thereby creating changes to the overall system.
8.3.A. Human activities may cause pollution of air, water and soil. (Level: Important)
8.3.B. Different technologies are used to access resources to meet human wants and needs. In many cases the environment is affected and resources become limited. Some activities may include burning of fossil fuels, logging, building of highways, shopping centers, and dams, introduction of one species to control another species, spraying of insects, as well as some aspects of farming. (Level: Important)