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New York Standards for Fourth Grade Science

NY.1. Analysis, Inquiry, and Design: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design, as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.

M1: MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Abstraction and symbolic representation are used to communicate mathematically.

M1.1. Use special mathematical notation and symbolism to communicate in mathematics and to compare and describe quantities, express relationships, and relate mathematics to their immediate environment.
M1.1a. Use plus, minus, greater than, less than, equal to, multiplication, and division signs
M1.1b. Select the appropriate operation to solve mathematical problems
M1.1c. Apply mathematical skills to describe the natural world

M2: MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Deductive and inductive reasoning are used to reach mathematical conclusions.

M2.1. Use simple logical reasoning to develop conclusions, recognizing that patterns and relationships present in the environment assist them in reaching these conclusions.
M2.1a. Explain verbally, graphically, or in writing the reasoning used to develop mathematical conclusions
M2.1b. Explain verbally, graphically, or in writing patterns and relationships observed in the physical and living environment

M3: MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS: Critical thinking skills are used in the solution of mathematical problems.

M3.1. Explore and solve problems generated from school, home, and community situations, using concrete objects or manipulative materials when possible.
M3.1a. Use appropriate scientific tools, such as metric rulers, spring scale, pan balance, graph paper, thermometers , graduated cylinder to solve problems about the natural world

S1: SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing, creative process.

S1.1. Ask ''why'' questions in attempts to seek greater understanding concerning objects and events they have observed and heard about.
S1.1a. Observe and discuss objects and events and record observations
S1.2. Question the explanations they hear from others and read about, seeking clarification and comparing them with their own observations and understandings.
S1.2a. Identify similarities and differences between explanations received from others or in print and personal observations or understandings

S2: SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and procedures and usually requiring considerable ingenuity.

S2.1. Develop written plans for exploring phenomena or for evaluating explanations guided by questions or proposed explanations they have helped formulate.
S2.1a. Indicate materials to be used and steps to follow to conduct the investigation and describe how data will be recorded (journal, dates and times, etc.)
S2.3. Carry out their plans for exploring phenomena through direct observation and through the use of simple instruments that permit measurement of quantities, such as length, mass, volume, temperature, and time.
S2.3a. Use appropriate ''inquiry and process skills'' to collect data

S3: SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into phenomena.

S3.1. Organize observations and measurements of objects and events through classification and the preparation of simple charts and tables.
S3.1a. Accurately transfer data from a science journal or notes to appropriate graphic organizer
S3.2. Interpret organized observations and measurements, recognizing simple patterns, sequences, and relationships.
S3.2a. State, orally and in writing, any inferences or generalizations indicated by the data collected
S3.3. Share their findings with others and actively seek their interpretations and ideas.
S3.3a. Explain their findings to others, and actively listen to suggestions for possible interpretations and ideas
S3.4. Adjust their explanations and understandings of objects and events based on their findings and new ideas.
S3.4a. State, orally and in writing, any inferences or generalizations indicated by the data, with appropriate modifications of their original prediction/explanation

T1: ENGINEERING DESIGN: Engineering design is an iterative process involving modeling and optimization (finding the best solution within given constraints); this process is used to develop technological solutions to problems within given constraints.

T1.3. Generate ideas for possible solutions, individually and through group activity; apply age-appropriate mathematics and science skills; evaluate the ideas and determine the best solution; and explain reasons for the choices.
T1.3a. List possible solutions, applying age-appropriate math and science skills

NY.6. Interconnectedness: Common Themes: Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

6.1: Through systems thinking, people can recognize the commonalities that exist among all systems and how parts of a system interrelate and combine to perform specific functions.

6.1.2. Identify common things that can be considered to be systems (e.g., a plant, a transportation system, human beings)

6.2: Models are simplified representations of objects, structures, or systems, used in analysis, explanation, or design.

6.2.1. Analyze, construct, and operate models in order to discover attributes of the real thing
6.2.2. Discover that a model of something is different from the real thing but can be used to study the real thing
6.2.3. Use different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams, and maps, to represent various aspects of the real world

6.4: Equilibrium is a state of stability due either to a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a balance between opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).

6.4.2. Recognize that things can change in different ways such as size, weight, color, and movement. Some small changes can be detected by taking measurements.

6.5: Identifying patterns of change is necessary for making predictions about future behavior and conditions.

6.5.1. Use simple instruments to measure such quantities as distance, size, and weight and look for patterns in the data
6.5.2. Analyze data by making tables and graphs and looking for patterns of change

6.6: In order to arrive at the best solution that meets criteria within constraints, it is often necessary to make trade-offs.

6.6.1. Choose the best alternative of a set of solutions under given constraints

NY.7. Interdisciplinary Problem Solving: Students will understand the relationships and common themes that connect mathematics, science, and technology and apply the themes to these and other areas of learning.

7.1: The knowledge and skills of mathematics, science, and technology are used together to make informed decisions and solve problems, especially those relating to issues of science/technology/society, consumer decision making, design, and inquiry into phenomena.

7.1.1. Analyze science/technology/society problems and issues that affect their home, school, or community, and carry out a remedial course of action
7.1.3. Design solutions to problems involving a familiar and real context, investigate related science concepts to determine the solution, and use mathematics to model, quantify, measure, and compute
7.1.4. Observe phenomena and evaluate them scientifically and mathematically by conducting a fair test of the effect of variables and using mathematical knowledge and technological tools to collect, analyze, and present data and conclusions

7.2: Solving interdisciplinary problems involves a variety of skills and strategies, including effective work habits; gathering and processing information; generating and analyzing ideas; realizing ideas; making connections among the common themes of mathematics, science, and technology; and presenting results.

7.2.2. Gather and process information
7.2.3. Generate and analyze ideas
7.2.4. Observe common themes
7.2.5. Realize ideas

NY.L4. The Living Environment: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

L4.3: Individual organisms and species change over time.

4.3.1. Describe how the structures of plants and animals complement the environment of the plant or animal.

L4.4: The continuity of life is sustained through reproduction and development.

4.4.1. Describe the major stages in the life cycles of selected plants and animals.
4.4.2. Describe evidence of growth, repair, and maintenance, such as nails, hair, and bone, and the healing of cuts and bruises.

L4.5: Organisms maintain a dynamic equilibrium that sustains life.

4.5.2. Describe some survival behaviors of common living specimens.

L4.6: Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.

4.6.1. Describe how plants and animals, including humans, depend upon each other and the nonliving environment.

L4.7: Human decisions and activities have had a profound impact on the physical and living environments.

4.7.1. Identify ways in which humans have changed their environment and the effects of those changes.

NY.P4. The Physical Setting: Students will understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories pertaining to the physical setting and living environment and recognize the historical development of ideas in science.

P4.1: The Earth and celestial phenomena can be described by principles of relative motion and perspective.

4.1.1. Describe patterns of daily, monthly, and seasonal changes in their environment.

P4.2: Many of the phenomena that we observe on Earth involve interactions among components of air, water, and land.

4.2.1. Describe the relationship among air, water, and land on Earth.

P4.3: Matter is made up of particles whose properties determine the observable characteristics of matter and its reactivity.

4.3.1. Observe and describe properties of materials, using appropriate tools.
4.3.2. Describe chemical and physical changes, including changes in states of matter.

P4.4: Energy exists in many forms, and when these forms change energy is conserved.

4.4.1. Describe a variety of forms of energy (e.g., heat, chemical, light) and the changes that occur in objects when they interact with those forms of energy.
4.4.2. Observe the way one form of energy can be transferred into another form of energy present in common situations (e.g., mechanical to heat energy, mechanical to electrical energy, chemical to heat energy).

P4.5: Energy and matter interact through forces that result in changes in motion.

4.5.1. Describe the effects of common forces (pushes and pulls) of objects, such as those caused by gravity, magnetism, and mechanical forces.
4.5.2. Describe how forces can operate across distances.